Freeze-Drying of Proteins
Freeze-drying has become one of the most important processes for the preservation of biological products. This chapter provides protocols for freeze-drying of proteins and discusses the importance of formulation, cycle development, and validation. Specific formulations for stabilization of proteins are presented as well as advice on common problems with freeze-drying of proteins.
Key wordsFreeze-drying Proteins Formulation Stabilizer Lyophilization
- 4.Carpenter JF, Chang BS (1996) Lyophilization of protein pharmaceuticals. In: Avis KE, Wu VL (eds) Biotechnology and biopharmaceutical manufacturing, processing and preservation. Interpharm Press, Buffalo Grove, IL, pp 199–264Google Scholar
- 7.Hua TC (2006) New technology of freeze-drying. Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
- 8.Hua TC, Liu BL, Zhang H (2010) Freeze-drying of pharmaceutical and food products. Cambridge, Science Press, Beijing and CRC Press LLC, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
- 13.May JC, Wheeler RM, Etz N, Del Grosso A (1992) Measurement of final container residual moisture in freeze dried biological products. Dev Biol Stand 74:153–164Google Scholar