Advertisement

Cryopreservation of Red Blood Cells

  • Johan W. LagerbergEmail author
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1257)

Abstract

Cryopreservation of red blood cell concentrates (RBCs) is an important method for maintaining an inventory of rare RBC units and managing special transfusion circumstances. The permeating additive glycerol is used as a cryoprotectant to protect RBCs against freezing damage. The use of thawed RBCs was hampered a 24-h outdating period due to potential bacterial contamination when a functionally open system was used for addition and removal of the glycerol. With the introduction of a functionally closed system for the glycerolization and deglycerolization of RBC units, extended post-thaw storage became possible. Here, we describe the cryopreservation of red blood cells according to the high-glycerol method, using a functionally closed processing system.

Key words

Cryopreservation Glycerol Red blood cells 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The author wishes to thank Dr. Femke Noorman, Military Blood Bank, the Netherlands, for sharing knowledge, providing information, and reviewing this manuscript.

References

  1. 1.
    Lelkens CC, Koning JG, de Kort B, Floot IB, Noorman F (2006) Experiences with frozen blood products in the Netherlands military. Transfus Apher Sci 34:289–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Holley A, Marks DC, Johnson L, Reade MC, Badloe JF, Noorman F (2013) Frozen blood products: clinically effective and potentially ideal for remote Australia. Anaesth Intensive Care 41:10–19Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Smith AU (1950) Prevention of haemolysis during freezing and thawing of red blood cells. Lancet 2:910–911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Polge C, Smith AU, Parkes AS (1949) Revival of spermatozoa after vitrification and dehydration at low temperatures. Nature 164:666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Krijnen HW, de Wit JJ, Kuivenhoven AC, Loos JA, Prins HK (1964) Glycerol treated human red cells frozen with liquid nitrogen. Vox Sang 9:559–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rowe AW, Eyster E, Kellner A (1968) Liquid nitrogen preservation of red blood cells for transfusion; a low glycerol-rapid freeze procedure. Cryobiology 5:119–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Huggins CE (1966) Frozen blood: principles of practical preservation. Monogr Surg Sci 3:133–173Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Almond DV, Valeri CR (1967) The in vivo effects of deglycerolized agglomerated erythrocytes transfused in multiple units to stable anemic patients. Transfusion 7:95–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Meryman HT, Hornblower M (1972) A method for freezing and washing red blood cells using a high glycerol concentration. Transfusion 12:145–156Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Valeri CR (1975) Simplification of the methods for adding and removing glycerol during freeze-preservation of human red blood cells with the high or low glycerol methods: biochemical modification prior to freezing. Transfusion 15:195–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Valeri CR, Valeri DA, Anastasi J, Vecchione JJ, Dennis RC, Emerson CP (1981) Freezing in the primary polyvinylchloride plastic collection bag: a new system for preparing and freezing nonrejuvenated and rejuvenated red blood cells. Transfusion 21:138–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Council of Europe (2013) Guide to the preparation, use and quality assurance of blood components, 17th edn. Council of Europe Publishing, Strasbourg Cedex, FranceGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    AABB (2011) Standards for blood banks and transfusion services, 27th edn. AABB, Bethesda, MDGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Scott KL, Lecak J, Acker JP (2005) Biopreservation of red blood cells: past, present, and future. Transfus Med Rev 19:127–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hess JR (2004) Red cell freezing and its impact on the supply chain. Transfus Med 14:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Crowley JP, Wade PH, Wish C, Valeri CR (1977) The purification of red cells for transfusion by freeze-preservation and washing. V. Red cell recovery and residual leukocytes after freeze-preservation with high concentrations of glycerol and washing in various systems. Transfusion 17:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chaplin H Jr (1982) The proper use of previously frozen red blood cells for transfusion. Blood 59:1118–1120Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Valeri CR, Ragno G, Pivacek L, O’Neill EM (2001) In vivo survival of apheresis RBCs, frozen with 40-percent (wt/vol) glycerol, deglycerolized in the ACP 215, and stored at 4 degrees C in AS-3 for up to 21 days. Transfusion 41:928–932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Valeri CR, Ragno G, Pivacek LE, Srey R, Hess JR, Lippert LE, Mettille F, Fahie R, O’Neill EM, Szymanski IO (2001) A multicenter study of in vitro and in vivo values in human RBCs frozen with 40-percent (wt/vol) glycerol and stored after deglycerolization for 15 days at 4 degrees C in AS-3: assessment of RBC processing in the ACP 215. Transfusion 41:933–939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lagerberg JW, Truijens-de Lange R, de Korte D, Verhoeven AJ (2007) Altered processing of thawed red cells to improve the in vitro quality during postthaw storage at 4 degrees C. Transfusion 47:2242–2249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lelkens CC, Noorman F, Koning JG, Truijens-de Lange R, Stekkinger PS, Bakker JC, Lagerberg JW, Brand A, Verhoeven AJ (2003) Stability after thawing of RBCs frozen with the high- and low-glycerol method. Transfusion 43:157–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pietersz RN, de Korte D, Reesink HW, Dekker WJ, van den Ende A, Loos JA (1989) Storage of whole blood for up to 24 hours at ambient temperature prior to component preparation. Vox Sang 56:145–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Carlsen A, Wieth JO (1976) Glycerol transport in human red cells. Acta Physiol Scand 97:501–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Haemonetics ACP215 Automated Blood Glycerolization & Deglycerolization System - Operator’s Manual.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    List J, Horvath M, Leitner GC, Weigel G (2012) Cryopreservation of red blood cell units with a modified method of glycerolization and deglycerolization with the ACP 215 device complies with American and European requirements. Immunohematology 28:67–73Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lagerberg JW, Paeper VW, Hagen WK, de Korte D (2011) Omitting glycerol supernatant reduction before freezing increases the RBC stability after thawing. Vox Sang 101:164–165Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hogman CF, de Verdier CH, Ericson A, Hedlund K, Sandhagen B (1985) Studies on the mechanism of human red cell loss of viability during storage at +4 degrees C in vitro. I. Cell shape and total adenylate concentration as determinant factors for posttransfusion survival. Vox Sang 48:257–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Heaton WA (1992) Evaluation of posttransfusion recovery and survival of transfused red cells. Transfus Med Rev 6:153–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bohonek M, Petras M, Turek I, Urbanová J, Hrádek T, Chmátal P, Staroprazská V, Kostírová J, Horcicková D, Duchková S, Svobodová J, Tejcková E (2010) Quality evaluation of frozen apheresis red blood cell storage with 21-day postthaw storage in additive solution 3 and saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol: biochemical and chromium-51 recovery measures. Transfusion 50:1007–1013CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Blood Cell ResearchSanquin ResearchAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations