Galectins pp 465-483 | Cite as

Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of Galectin-3

  • Eric J. Arnoys
  • Cheri M. Ackerman
  • John L. WangEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1207)


A large number of observations on the nuclear versus cytoplasmic distribution of galectin-3 have been reported, correlating the presence or absence of the protein in a particular compartment of the cell to various parameters such as source of the cells under study, specific cell type, culture conditions, proliferation status of the cell/culture, or neoplastic transformation. In fact, galectin-3 exhibits the phenomenon of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, defined as the repeated bidirectional movement of a protein across the nuclear pore complex. Nevertheless, the finding that galectin-3 can show a predominantly nuclear localization under one set of conditions and a prominent cytoplasmic localization under other conditions suggests specific and regulated mechanisms of balance between cytoplasmic anchorage, nuclear import, nuclear retention, and nuclear export. One key consideration in the understanding of these processes is the definition of the signals and receptors that mediate the transport. In this chapter, we describe the experimental procedures that have allowed us to document the phenomenon of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and the identification of the nuclear localization signal as well as the nuclear export signal.

Key words

Nuclear import Nuclear export Nuclear localization signal Nuclear export signal 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eric J. Arnoys
    • 1
  • Cheri M. Ackerman
    • 1
    • 2
  • John L. Wang
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryCalvin CollegeGrand RapidsUSA
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  3. 3.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

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