Galectins pp 343-354 | Cite as

Examination of Galectin Localization Using Confocal Microscopy

  • Daniel Giuliano Cerri
  • Connie M. Arthur
  • Lílian Cataldi Rodrigues
  • Marise Lopes Fermino
  • Lenaldo Branco Rocha
  • Sean R. Stowell
  • Marcelo Dias BaruffiEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1207)


Confocal microscopy provides a unique modality to examine the expression and localization of biomolecules in a variety of settings. Using this technique, an image is acquired from the focal plane of the objective using focused laser light, making it possible to work within the resolution limit of the optical system. In addition, by acquiring multiple images from a variety of focal planes, stacked series of images can provide clear spatial localization of a probed structure or protein. We describe herein the immunofluorescence methods for galectin staining in frozen sections of tissue for galectin localization using confocal microscopy.

Key words

Confocal microscopy Galectin Tissue Antibody Immunofluorescence 



We thank the technicians Maria Vani Alves (Department of Cell Biology and Pathogenic agents from Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto-University of São Paulo) and Márcia Sirlene Zardin Graeff (Research Center-Faculty of Odontology of Bauru-University of São Paulo) for their invaluable assistance.

The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the authors and are not to be construed as official or as reflecting the views of our department.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Giuliano Cerri
    • 1
  • Connie M. Arthur
    • 2
  • Lílian Cataldi Rodrigues
    • 1
  • Marise Lopes Fermino
    • 1
  • Lenaldo Branco Rocha
    • 3
  • Sean R. Stowell
    • 2
  • Marcelo Dias Baruffi
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, Department of Clinical, Toxicological and Bromatological AnalysisUniversity of Sao PauloRibeirão Preto-SBrazil
  2. 2.Center for Transfusion and Cellular Therapies, Department of Pathology and Laboratory MedicineEmory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA
  3. 3.Institute of Biological and Natural SciencesTriângulo Mineiro Federal UniversityUberabaBrazil

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