Some cancer cell lines release soluble factors that activate the endothelial cells in vitro; also endothelial activation in vivo includes an increased expression of adhesion molecules on the apical membrane, and an increased permeability, which may contribute to the extravasation process of circulating cells. We have adapted the Miles assay into a protocol that uses IgE/antigen complex and VEGF-1 as controls. The Miles assay comprises the intradermic injection of a pro-inflammatory agent into the skin and the intravenous introduction of a dye; the increase in vascular permeability will allow for the extravasation of the dye and thus the skin will be stained. The dye is then extracted from the dissected skin and quantified by spectrophotometry. The use of localized treatments will allow for testing a larger number of experimental samples in the same animal. With this model, the effects of tumoral soluble factors (TSFs) on endothelial permeability can be studied, as well as the signaling pathways involved. It can also serve to study the interactions between endothelial, immune, and cancer cells during the extravasation process.
Cancer Endothelium Vascular permeability Metastasis Extravasation Tumoral soluble factors
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Springer Nature is developing a new tool to find and evaluate Protocols. Learn more
César Alejandro Guzmán Pérez received a master’s scholarship from the Mexican National Council for Science and Technology (CONACyT, Grant 245198). The authors thank M. Sc. Layla Ortiz and Dr. Melissa Boyd for their assistance in translating the manuscript.
Criscuoli ML, Nguyen M, Eliceiri BP (2005) Tumor metastasis but not tumor growth is dependent on Src-mediated vascular permeability. Blood 105:1508–1514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eum SY, Lee YW, Hennig B et al (2004) VEGF regulates PCB 104-mediated stimulation of permeability and transmigration of breast cancer cells in human microvascular endothelial cells. Exp Cell Res 296:231–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
García-Román J, Zentella-Dehesa A (2013) Vascular permeability changes involved in tumor metastasis. Cancer Lett 335(2):259–269. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2013.03.005
Aghajanian A, Wittchen ES, Allingham MJ et al (2008) Endothelial cell junctions and the regulation of vascular permeability and leukocyte transmigration. J Thromb Haemost 6:1453–1460PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nguyen DX, Bos PD, Massagué J (2009) Metastasis: from dissemination to organ-specific colonization. Nat Rev Cancer 9:274–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perelmuter VM, Manskikh VN (2012) Preniche as missing link of the metastatic niche concept explaining organ-preferential metastasis of malignant tumors and the type of metastatic disease. Biochemistry (Mosc) 77:111–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Estrada-Bernal A, Alcántara-Meléndez MA, Mendoza-Milla C et al (2003) NF-kappaB dependent activation of human endothelial cells treated with soluble products derived from human lymphomas. Cancer Lett 191:239–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Calorini L, Bianchini F (2010) Environmental control of invasiveness and metastatic dissemination of tumor cells: the role of tumor cell-host cell interactions. Cell Commun Signal 2010, 8:24. doi:10.1186/1478-811X-8-24