Advertisement

Brain Stereotaxic Injection

  • Jingdong ZhangEmail author
  • Huangui Xiong
Protocol
Part of the Springer Protocols Handbooks book series (SPH)

Abstract

The brain is a precisely organized and compact structure that controls a majority of bodily functions. Precise identification of function related structures is extremely important in neuroscience research. Achievement of this goal would not have been possible without the stereotaxic delivery system. This chapter recalls the history of the stereotaxic instrument and development of system applications. In addition, we use the rat coordinate atlas and stereotaxic instrument as an example and introduce practicable procedures for application of this system in the following sequence: (1) How to read a rat brain atlas with stereotaxic coordinates and determine coordinates for a targeted brain structure. The reference points, bregma, lambda, and interaural line, are interpreted in this section. Identify what parameters in the atlas refer to sagittal, medial–lateral, and anterior–posterior coordinates. In addition, calculate an angled delivery coordinate to avoid damaging any large blood vessel in the brain. (2) How to correctly mount a rat on the instrument and position an electrode or delivery pipette based on coordinates obtained or calculated from the atlas. In this procedure, the head of a rat must first be reliably mounted on the head holder; then actual coordinates for a reference point (bregma, lambda, or interaural line) are required. Theoretically, all should be “0,” but actually not. The actual parameters of a reference point are the number displayed on instrument bars when the tip of the needle aimed at the reference point. (3) The methods of injection include pressure injection, iontophoresis, and dry crystal delivery. The key point for pressure injection is to conduct it quite slowly and keep the micropipette or needle in situ for quite a while after injection. Similarly in iontophoresis delivery, do not withdraw the electrode immediately out of the place after injection. In dry crystal delivery section, a new device for stereotaxic delivery of crystal into deep structures of the brain is introduced. However, online index has not shown any commercial availability of this kind of device.

Keywords

Brain atlas with stereotaxic coordinates Stereotaxic reference points Stereotaxic instruments Stereotaxic positioning of delivery pipette Pressure or iontophoresis injection 

References

  1. Abercrombie M, Johnson ML (1946) Quantitative histology of Wallerian degeneration; nuclear population in rabbit sciatic nerve. J Anat 80:37–50PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Adey WR, Noda H (1973) Influence of eye movements on geniculo-striate excitability in the cat. J Physiol 235:805–821CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Bizzi E (1966) Changes in the orthodromic and antidromic response of optic tract during the eye movements of sleep. J Neurophysiol 29:861–870CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cetin A, Komai S, Eliava M, Seeburg PH, Osten P (2006) Stereotaxic gene delivery in the rodent brain. Nat Protoc 1:3166–3173CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Chu HP, Etgen AM (1997) A potential role of cyclic GMP in the regulation of lordosis behavior of female rats. Horm Behav 32:125–132CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Herschel J (1972) A scaled ratio of body weight to brain weight of a comparative index for relative importance of brain size in mammals of widely varying body mass. Psychol Rep 31:84–86CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Horsley VA, Clarke RH (1908) The structure and functions of the cerebellum examined by a new method. Brain 31:45–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Johnson AC, Mc NA, Rossiter RJ (1950) Chemistry of Wallerian degeneration; a review of recent studies. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 64:105–121CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Kobbert C, Apps R, Bechmann I, Lanciego JL, Mey J, Thanos S (2000) Current concepts in neuroanatomical tracing. Prog Neurobiol 62:327–351CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Leksell L (1949a) A new technique for craniotomy; the osteodural flap. Acta Chir Scand 98:270–272, 272 pl.Google Scholar
  11. Leksell L (1949b) A surgical procedure for atresia of the aqueduct of Sylvius. Acta Psychiatr Neurol 24:559–568CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Liu JS, Wang Q, Zhang JB, Kong LJ, Yao SY, Zheng DY, Xu QY (2011) Construction and functional activity of a recombinant vector expressing rat glutamic acid decarboxylase 65. Neurosci Bull 27:430–435CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Liu R, Dang W, Jianting M, Su C, Wang H, Chen Y, Tan Q (2012) Citalopram alleviates chronic stress induced depression-like behaviors in rats by activating GSK3beta signaling in dorsal hippocampus. Brain Res 1467:10–17CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Marin G, Henny P, Letelier JC, Sentis E, Karten H, Mrosko B, Mpodozis J (2001) A simple method to microinject solid neural tracers into deep structures of the brain. J Neurosci Methods 106:121–129CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Norgaard Glud A, Hedegaard C, Nielsen MS, Sorensen JC, Bendixen C, Jensen PH, Larsen K, Bjarkam CR (2010) Direct gene transfer in the Gottingen minipig CNS using stereotaxic lentiviral microinjections. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 70:308–315Google Scholar
  16. Paxinos G, Watson C (eds) (1998) The rat brain in stereotaxic coordinates, 4th edn. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  17. Spiegel EA, Wycis HT, Marks M, Lee AJ (1947) Stereotaxic apparatus for operations on the human brain. Science 106:349–350CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Tan TC, Black PM (2002) Sir Victor Horsley (1857–1916): pioneer of neurological surgery. Neurosurgery 50:607–611, discussion 611–602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Thomas GA (1948) Quantitative histology of Wallerian degeneration; nuclear population in two nerves of different fibre spectrum. J Anat 82:135–145PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Zhang J, Liang H, Luo P, Xiong H (2011) Unraveling a masticatory—oculomotor neural pathway in rat: Implications for a pathophysiological neural circuit in human? Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol 3:280–287PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Zlokovic BV, Apuzzo ML (1997) Cellular and molecular neurosurgery: pathways from concept to reality—part II: vector systems and delivery methodologies for gene therapy of the central nervous system. Neurosurgery 40:805–812, discussion 812–803CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology and Experimental NeuroscienceUniversity of Nebraska Medical Center, Durham Research CenterOmahaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology and Experimental NeuroscienceUniversity of Nebraska Medical Center, Durham Research CenterOmahaUSA

Personalised recommendations