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Magnetic Resonance Imaging

  • Yutong LiuEmail author
Protocol
Part of the Springer Protocols Handbooks book series (SPH)

Abstract

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an essential tool in neuroscience investigations employing laboratory animals. In this chapter, the basic physics of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals are briefly described, followed by the principle of MRI formation and pulse sequences. MRI instrumentation is discussed including the necessary accessories for animal imaging. The focus of this chapter is the introduction of a variety of MRI techniques and their applications in neuroscience. The physiologic basis of MRI contrasts based on proton density and relaxation times (T1, T2, and T 2 * ) in tissue is first described, followed by their applications in neuroscience study. Advanced techniques, including diffusion and perfusion MRI, are then introduced. In diffusion MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is first described followed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The physics, physiologic basis, and applications in neuroscience of these techniques are addressed respectively. There are two techniques in perfusion MRI: bolus tracking and arterial spin labeling. Both are introduced with a focus on bolus tracking technique. Functional MRI (fMRI) and its applications are presented. The stimulations used in fMRI are described, and resting state fMRI is also discussed. The possible pitfalls in fMRI applications are also addressed. The applications of exogenous contrast agents in MRI are also discussed, especially manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) and in vivo cell tracking using superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles.

Keywords

MRI Relaxation time Pulse sequence Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) Perfusion MRI Functional MRI (fMRI) Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) 

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departments of Radiology and Pharmacology and Experimental NeuroscienceUniversity of Nebraska Medical CenterOmahaUSA

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