Laboratory Techniques for Symbiotic Bacteria

Part of the Springer Protocols Handbooks book series (SPH)


Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae are symbionts thriving in commensalism with Steinernema and Heterorhabditis, respectively. Though most of the insect symbionts are endocytobionts, it is hard to cultivate them. Isolation of bacteria from nematodes can be done by release of bacteria from intestine or whole nematodes and through insect hemolymph (G. mellonella). Identification of the symbiotic bacteria helps to verify that the isolates belonged to the genera Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus. Morphological, biochemical and molecular methodologies are assessed for characterizing the bacterial isolates. Novel bioactive compound of symbiotic bacteria is evaluated by extraction, purification and structural identification. The efficacy, virulence and pathogenicity of symbiotic bacteria are analyzed under laboratory conditions.


Isolation Xenorhabdus Photorhabdus Hemolymph Antimicrobial Mosquitocidal Larvicidal 


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© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2021

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyBharathidasan UniversityTiruchirappalliIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiotechnologyMother Teresa Women’s UniversityKodaikanalIndia

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