Part of the Springer Protocols Handbooks book series (SPH)


The life cycle of the entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema and Heterorhabditis consists of two phases namely a free-living phase in the soil and a parasitic phase inside the insect host. Steinernema IJs use ambusher strategy and Heterorhabditis IJs use cruiser strategy to locate their insect host. IJs enter the insect host through natural openings like mouth, anus and spiracles or cuticle. The metabolites produced by bacteria are lethal to the larvae and the host insect is killed by septicemia or toxemia. The bacterial metabolites have a wide-spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Biocontrol potential of EPNs depends on the mutualism amongst a host-seeking nematode and a lethal insect-pathogenic bacterium.


Life cycle Infective juveniles Host Septicemia Metabolites Biocontrol 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2021

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyBharathidasan UniversityTiruchirappalliIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiotechnologyMother Teresa Women’s UniversityKodaikanalIndia

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