Historical Aspects

Part of the Springer Protocols Handbooks book series (SPH)


Entomopathogenic nematodes of the genus Steinernema and Heterorhabditis do not have a select shared ancestry. They independently established relationships with bacteria and insects from disparate, unrelated ancestors. The diversity and distribution of the families Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae entomopathogenic nematodes are widespread in every continent except in Antarctica. In 1923, Steiner described the first entomopathogenic nematode. All species of Steinernema have mutualistic associations with Xenorhabdus species and all species of Heterorhabditis have symbiotic associations with Photorhabdus species. S. glaseri was the first mass produced nematode and used under field conditions for biological control of an insect pest.


proto-Rhabditonema Biogeography Habitat Steinernema Heterorhabditis Xenorhabdus Photorhabdus Systematic 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2021

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyBharathidasan UniversityTiruchirappalliIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiotechnologyMother Teresa Women’s UniversityKodaikanalIndia

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