Advertisement

Field Studies Demonstrating the Efficacy of Bioremediation in Marine Environments

  • Roger C. PrinceEmail author
  • James R. Clark
  • Jon E. Lindstrom
Protocol
Part of the Springer Protocols Handbooks book series (SPH)

Abstract

The ultimate fate of most oil released into the biosphere is biodegradation. Yet oil lacks some of the essential nutrients for microbial life, and its biodegradation can be limited by the availability of such nutrients from the local environment. Bioremediation of oil on shorelines aims to at least partially alleviate this limitation by the judicious application of fertilizers. Bioremediation played a central role in the response to the Exxon Valdez spill in Prince William Sound, AK, being applied to more than 120 km of shoreline. This short paper describes the program designed by Exxon, the USEPA, and the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation to assess the environmental safety and efficacy of bioremediation as it was being carried out in the Sound. It provides a prototype if monitoring shoreline bioremediation needs to be done in the future.

Keywords

Conserved internal markers Nutrient analysis Oleophilic fertilizer Radiorespirometry Slow-release fertilizer Toxicity testing 

References

  1. 1.
    Nauman SA (1991) Shoreline cleanup: equipment and operations. In: 1991 international oil spill conference. American Petroleum Institute, Washington, pp 141–147Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pritchard PH, Mueller JG, Rogers JC, Kremer FV, Glaser JA (1992) Oil spill bioremediation: experiences, lessons and results from the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska. Biodegradation 3:315–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    USEPA (2014) Alphabetical list of NCP product schedule (products available for use during an oil spill). http://www2.epa.gov/emergency-response/alphabetical-list-ncp-product-schedule-products-available-use-during-oil-spill
  4. 4.
    Pritchard PH (1991) Bioremediation as a technology; experiences with the Exxon Valdez spill. J Hazard Mater 28:115–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ladousse A, Tramier B (1991) Results of 12 years of research in spilled oil bioremediation: Inipol EAP22. In: 1991 international oil spill conference. American Petroleum Institute, Washington, pp 577–582Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gautier JC, Sirvins A, Tellier J, Tramier B (1984) Microemulsion of nutrient substances. US Patent 4,460,692Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Prince RC, Bragg JR (1997) Shoreline bioremediation following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska. Biorem J 1:97–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Limpert E, Stahel WA, Abbt M (2001) Log-normal distributions across the sciences: keys and clues. Bioscience 51:341–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    National Research Council (1996) In situ bioremediation: when does it work? National Academies Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bragg JR, Prince RC, Harner EJ, Atlas RM (1994) Effectiveness of bioremediation for the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Nature 368:413–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Prince RC, Clark JR, Lindstrom JE, Butler EL, Brown EJ, Winter G, Grossman MJ, Parrish RR, Bare RE, Braddock JF, Steinhauer WG, Douglas GS, Kennedy JM, Barter PJ, Bragg JR, Harner EJ, Atlas RM (1994) Bioremediation of the Exxon Valdez oil spill: monitoring safety and efficacy. In: Hinchee RE, Alleman BC, Hoeppel RE, Miller RN (eds) Hydrocarbon remediation. Lewis, Boca Raton, pp 107–124Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Prince RC, Bare RE, Garrett RM, Grossman MJ, Haith CE, Keim LG, Lee K, Holtom GJ, Lambert P, Sergy GA, Owens EH, Guénette CC (2003) Bioremediation of stranded oil on an Arctic shoreline. Spill Sci Technol Bull 8:303–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lindstrom JE, Prince RC, Clark JR, Grossman MJ, Yeager TR, Braddock JF, Brown EJ (1991) Microbial populations and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials in fertilized shoreline sediments affected by the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill. Appl Environ Microbiol 57:2514–2522PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Prince RC, Bare RE, George GN, Haith CE, Grossman MJ, Lute JR, Elmendorf DL, Minak-Bernero V, Senius JD, Keim LG, Chianelli RR, Hinton SM, Teal AR (1993) The effect of bioremediation on the microbial populations of oiled beaches in Prince William Sound, Alaska. In: 1993 international oil spill conference. American Petroleum Institute, Washington, pp 469–475Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Miget RJ, Oppenheimer CH, Kator HI, LaRock PA (1969) Microbial degradation of normal paraffin hydrocarbons in crude oil. In: 1969 international oil spill conference. American Petroleum Institute, Washington, pp 327–331Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Prince RC, Elmendorf DL, Lute JR, Hsu CS, Haith CE, Senius JD, Dechert GJ, Douglas GS, Butler EL (1994) 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane as a conserved internal marker for estimating the biodegradation of crude oil. Environ Sci Technol 28:142–145CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    USEPA (2002) Methods for measuring the acute toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to freshwater and marine organisms, 5th edn, October 2002. http://water.epa.gov/scitech/methods/cwa/wet/disk2_index.cfm
  18. 18.
    Boufadel MC, Reeser P, Suidan MT, Wrenn BA, Cheng J, Du X, Huang TL, Venosa AD (1999) Optimal nitrate concentration for the biodegradation of n-heptadecane in a variably-saturated sand column. Environ Technol 20:191–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sihota NJ, Singurindy O, Mayer KU (2010) CO2-efflux measurements for evaluating source zone natural attenuation rates in a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated aquifer. Environ Sci Technol 45:482–488CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Swannell RPJ, Mitchell D, Lethbridge G, Jones D, Heath D, Hagley M, Jones M, Petch S, Milne R, Croxford R, Lee K (1999) A field demonstration of the efficacy of bioremediation to treat oiled shorelines following the Sea Empress incident. Environ Technol 20:863–873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Venosa AD, Suidan MT, Wrenn BA, Strohmeier KL, Haines JR, Eberhart BL, King D, Holder E (1996) Bioremediation of an experimental oil spill on the shoreline of Delaware Bay. Environ Sci Technol 30:1764–1775CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roger C. Prince
    • 1
    Email author
  • James R. Clark
    • 2
  • Jon E. Lindstrom
    • 3
  1. 1.ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences, Inc.AnnandaleUSA
  2. 2.JClark ConsultingEdmondsUSA
  3. 3.Shannon and Wilson, Inc.FairbanksUSA

Personalised recommendations