Evaluation of Efficacy of Yersinia pestis Vaccines
Use of antibody response, cell-mediated immunity, survival rate analysis, and pathological observation to evaluate the protective efficacy of plague vaccines is described in this chapter. Determination of antibody response was performed by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assays were performed for cytokine detection by using commercially available mouse ELISpot kits, and spots were counted using CTL Analyzer and ImmunoSpot Version 5.0 software. For survival rate analysis, immunized animals were challenged with a virulent Yersinia pestis strain, closely observed for 21 days, and the survival rate was calculated. Animals that survived at day 21 after challenge were humanely killed for postmortem examination. Their tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathological examination, and the presence of Y. pestis was detected by Giemsa staining under light microscopy. Immune complex deposition on glomerular basement membranes was detected using transmission electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to confirm the presence of Y. pestis in tissue sections.
Key wordsYersinia pestis Plague Vaccine Evaluation
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