Microchip Devices for Bioanalysis
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Over the last two decades, microchip-based lab analysis systems have become more and more popular. These devices are typically called lab-on-a-chip devices or micro-TAS (micro total analysis systems), because they are designed to integrate an entire analytical instrument onto a small portable device. However, for the benefit of this chapter, we are going to refer to these devices as lab-on-a-chip devices, because this term is broader and includes both the analysis portion of the device, and also any other functions that the device might perform (i.e., microreactors, cell culturing, PCR, separations, etc.). Some of the devices are designed to be disposable and some are designed to be reuseable, but they are typically designed to be small portable, inexpensive devices that complete an entire chemical analysis.
The first lab-on-a-chip device was developed in 1979 when a gas chromato-graph was fabricated on a silicon wafer (1). Over the last 25 years, research has...
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