In Vitro Characterization

Economics and Technology
  • Felix Franks
Part of the Biological Methods book series (BM)


The science and technology of proteins in the industrial scene need to be introduced with some history and current commercial positioning of the “protein business.” Functional protein powders for food use were virtually unknown prior to 1940 except for dried “natural” materials (milk, egg). The war led to the development of a chemically hydrolyzed milk powder, marketed as a partial egg white replacer. Today, isolated food proteins are extracted from yeasts, fungal sources, legumes, oil seeds, cereals and leaves, and recovered from offal (meat, fish). As regards proteins destined for therapeutic, diagnostic, or research uses, the range of raw materials is much wider, including human sources (e.g., placenta) and, increasingly, materials derived from recombinant DNA technology.


Phytic Acid Size Exclusion Chromatography Purification Factor Penicillin Acylase Isoelectric Precipitation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Anon. (1990), D-J-M-Enzyme Report 9(5), 1–8; 9(6), 4–8.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hatley R. H. M., Franks F., and Mathias S. F. (1987), Process Biochem. 22(6), 169–172.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dubey A. K., Mukhopadhyay S. N., Bisaria V. S. and Ghose T. K. (1987), Process Biochem. 22, 25–34.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ano. Genetic News, Jan. 1983.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Van Brunt J. (1988), Bio/Technology 4, 479–483.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Franks F. and Eagland D. (1975), QRC Crit Rev. Biochem. 3, 165–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cohn E. J., Strong L. E., Hughes W. L., Mulford D. J., Ashworth J. N., Melin M. and Taylor H. L. (1946), J. Am. Chem. Soc. 68, 459–475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Walter H., Brooks D. E., and Fisher D., eds. (1985), Partitioning in Aqueous Two-Phase Systems, Academic Press, Orlando FL.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hustedt H., Kroner K. H., Schütte H., and Kula M.-R. (1983), Enzyme Technol. Rotenburg Ferment. Symp., 3rd, Sept. 1982 Vol. 1, pp. 135–145, Verlag Chemie.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kroner K. H., Hustedt H., and Kula M.-R. (1984), Process Biochem. 19, 170–179.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ives K. J. ed. (1978), The Scientific Basis of Floccculation, Sijthoff and Noordhoff, Alphen an den Rijn, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bell D. J., Hoare M, and Dunnill P. (1983), Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotech. 26, 2–72.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tamb N. and Hozum H. (1979), Water Res. 13, 421–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tomi D. J. and Bagster D. F. (1978), Trans. Inst. Chem. Eng. 56, 9–18.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lillford P. J. (1988), in Characterization of Proteins (Franks F., ed.), Humana Press, Clifton, NJ, p. 427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hoare M. (1982), Trans. I. Chem. Eng. 60, 79–87.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jewett W. R. (1974), US Patent No. 3826740.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Boyer R. A., Crupl J., and Atkinson W. T. (1945), US Patent No. 2377853.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Beaton N. C. and Steadly H. (1982), in Recent Development in Separation Science vol. VII (Li N. N., ed.), CRC, New York.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Duncan M. E., Charlesworth F. A. and Griffin J. P., (1987), Trends in Biotechnology 5, 325–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bodgansky F. M. (1987), Pharmaceuticals Today 11(9), 72–74.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Garnick R. L., Rass M. J., and de Mec C. P. (1988) in: Encyclopedia of Pharmaceutical Technology, Vol. (Swarbrick J. and Boylan J. C. eds.), Dekker, Inc. New York.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Utsumi H., Yamazaki S., Hosoi K., Kimura S., Hanada K., Shimazu T., and Shimizu H. (1987),J. Biochem. 101, 1199–1208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Myers C. (1988), in Characterization of Proteins (Franks F., ed.), Humana Press, Clifton, NJ, p. 491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Humana Press Inc 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Felix Franks
    • 1
  1. 1.Pafra LtdCambridgeEngland

Personalised recommendations