Microwave Paraffin Techniques for Botanical Tissues

  • Denise Schichnes
  • Jeffrey A. Nemson
  • Steven E. Ruzin
Part of the Springer Protocols Handbooks book series (SPH)


The popularity of in situ hybridization (ISH) of nucleic acids and immunolocalization of proteins has caused a resurgence of interest in paraffin microtechnique by the plant biology community. However, the amount of time required for proper anatomical preservation of plant tissues results in degradation of nucleic acids and proteins in the sample (Jackson, 1991). There are protocols that may be used to reduce degradation, but they often result in poor anatomical preservation and target (nucleic acid, protein) conservation (Jackson, 1991; Kouchi and Hata, 1993; Ruzin, 1999).


Friable Callus Stomatal Complex Traditional Protocol Glass Scintillation Vial Molten Paraffin 
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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Denise Schichnes
    • 1
  • Jeffrey A. Nemson
    • 2
  • Steven E. Ruzin
    • 1
  1. 1.Biological Imaging Facility, College of Natural ResourcesUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeley
  2. 2.Department of Plant and Microbial BiologyUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeley

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