Postoperative Delirium and Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction

  • Matthew Umholtz
  • Nader D. NaderEmail author
Part of the Neuromethods book series (NM, volume 150)


Postoperative delirium (POD) and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) are post-surgical phenomena associated with an increase in morbidity, mortality, and resource utilization. This review scrutinizes a number of studies in order to better characterize POD/POCD, with particular focus paid to the conditions’ etiology, associated risk factors, prevention, and management. Despite their clinical importance, evidence-based protocols for the prevention and treatment of POD and POCD are still lacking. In order to ensure improved safety and cost-effective management of POD/POCD future research should focus on screening protocols to identify at risk patients, in addition to formulating a standardized treatment regimen for patients most at risk.

Key words

Postoperative delirium Postoperative cognitive dysfunction Anesthesia recovery Anesthetic complications Perioperative complications Cognitive impairment 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyBrandon Regional HospitalBrandonUSA
  2. 2.Department of AnesthesiologyUniversity at BuffaloBuffaloUSA
  3. 3.Anesthesiology SvcVA Western NY Healthcare SystemBuffaloUSA
  4. 4.Department of AnesthesiologyJacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical ScienceBuffaloUSA

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