Transcutaneous Measurement of Glomerular Filtration Rate in Rodents

  • Cristina Daniele
  • Daniela Nardozi
  • Angelo Torelli
  • Arif ul Maula Khan
  • Norbert GretzEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 2067)


Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is considered the gold standard to test kidney function. However, the serial blood and/or urine sample collection required for the calculation of the GFR is stressful for the animal and time consuming for the experimenter. Here, we describe a transcutaneous assessment of renal function in conscious animals that does not require plasma or urine sampling and/or deep anesthesia. For the measurement, we use a near-infrared (NIR) device that records the excretion kinetic of the renal marker ABZWCY-HPβCD. ABZWCY-HPβCD is a new hydrophilic, stable, and nontoxic NIR fluorescent agent that can be used as a renal marker as it is filtrated and completely excreted through the kidneys into the urine without reabsorption or secretion and without accumulation in the skin. The data recorded in the device are then analyzed with “GFRmeasure,” an open-source, freely downloadable, and user-friendly software.

Key words

Glomerular filtration rate GFR marker Transcutaneous measurement Half-life calculation Renal function evaluation User-friendly software 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cristina Daniele
    • 1
  • Daniela Nardozi
    • 1
  • Angelo Torelli
    • 1
    • 2
  • Arif ul Maula Khan
    • 1
  • Norbert Gretz
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Medical Faculty Mannheim, Medical Research CenterUniversity of HeidelbergMannheimGermany
  2. 2.Mannheim University of Applied SciencesMannheimGermany

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