Histological Examination of the Diabetic Kidney
The increasing prevalence of diabetes worldwide has led to a concomitant rise in diabetic kidney disease (DKD) as a major cause of end-stage renal disease. Glomerular lesions constitute the most striking and consistent features identified in biopsies from patients with DKD, although tubulointerstitial injury has an important and often under-recognized role in the progression to overt nephropathy. In advanced stages of the disease, podocyte detachment is a pivotal event in the loss of glomerular filtration barrier integrity and may explain, at least in part, the inability of current therapies to halt renal function decline. This chapter details the systematic method that can be used to study renal tissue samples from diabetic patients, and the specific role of different imaging techniques, such as light microscopy, immunofluorescence microscopy, and transmission and scanning electron microscopy in detecting histologic lesions specific to DKD.
Key wordsDiabetic kidney disease Renal biopsy Glomerulus Podocyte Light microscopy Immunofluorescence microscopy Transmission electron microscopy Scanning electron microscopy
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