Diabetic Nephropathy: An Overview
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most feared diabetic chronic microvascular complications and the major cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The classical presentation of DN is characterized by hyperfiltration and albuminuria in the early phases which is then followed by a progressive renal function decline. The presentation of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) can vary especially in patients with T2DM where concomitant presence of other glomerular/tubular pathologies and severe peripheral vascular disease can become important confounders. All-cause mortality in individuals with DKD is approximately 30 times higher than that in diabetic patients without nephropathy and a great majority of patients with DKD will die from cardiovascular disease before they reach ESRD. The management of metabolic and hemodynamic perturbations for the prevention and for the delay of progression of DKD is very important. DKD is a global challenge and a significant social and economic burden; research should aim at developing new ideas to tackle this devastating condition.
Key wordsDiabetes mellitus Diabetic kidney disease Epidemiology Management Pathogenesis
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