Self-Establishing Communities: A Yeast Model to Study the Physiological Impact of Metabolic Cooperation in Eukaryotic Cells
All biosynthetically active cells are able to export and import metabolites, the small molecule intermediaries of metabolism. In dense cell populations, this hallmark of cells results in the intercellular exchange of a wide spectrum of metabolites. Such metabolite exchange enables metabolic specialization of individual cells, leading to far reaching biological implications, as a consequence of the intrinsic connection between metabolism and cell physiology. In this chapter, we discuss methods on how to study metabolite exchange interactions by using self-establishing metabolically cooperating communities (SeMeCos) in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. SeMeCos exploit the stochastic segregation of episomes to progressively increase the number of essential metabolic interdependencies in a community that grows out from an initially prototrophic cell. By coupling genotype to metabotype, SeMeCos allow for the tracking of cells while they specialize metabolically and hence the opportunity to study their progressive change in physiology.
Key wordsMetabolic cooperation Yeast communities Metabolic specialization
We thank Dr. Susann Zilkenat for critical comments and proofreading of the manuscript. Work in the Ralser lab was supported by the Francis Crick Institute which receives its core funding from Cancer Research UK (FC001134), the UK Medical Research Council (FC001134), and the Wellcome Trust (FC001134), and received specific funding from the Wellcome Trust (RG 200829/Z/16/Z).
- 22.Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L (2002) Amino acid biosynthesis is regulated by feedback inhibition. In: Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L (eds) Biochemistry, 5th edn. WH Freeman, New York, NYGoogle Scholar