Quantification of Isotopologues of Amino Acids by Multiplexed Stable Isotope-Resolved Metabolomics Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Mass Spectrometry Coupled with Direct Infusion

  • Ye Yang
  • Teresa W.-M. FanEmail author
  • Andrew N. Lane
  • Richard M. Higashi
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 2030)


Stable isotope-resolved metabolomics (SIRM) is increasingly used among researchers for metabolic studies including amino acid metabolism. However, the classical GC- or HPLC-based methods for amino acid quantification do not meet the needs for multiplexed stable isotope-enriched analysis by ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry (UHR-FTMS). This is due to insufficient acquisition time during chromatographic separations and large dynamic range in concentrations of analytes, which compromises detection and quantification of the numerous metabolite isotopologues present in crude extracts. This chapter discusses a modified ethyl chloroformate derivatization method to enable rapid quantitative analysis of stable isotope-enriched amino acids using direct infusion ion introduction coupled with UHR-FTMS.

Key words

Ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry Amino acids Stable isotope-resolved metabolomics Direct infusion nano-electrospray Chloroformate derivatization 



This work was supported in part by the National Institutes of Health grants [5R01ES22191-04, 3R01ES022191-04S1, 1U24DK097215-01A1, and P01 CA163223-01A1].


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ye Yang
    • 1
  • Teresa W.-M. Fan
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Andrew N. Lane
    • 2
    • 3
  • Richard M. Higashi
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Urologic Oncology BranchNational Cancer Institute, National Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Toxicology and Cancer Biology, Markey Cancer CenterUniversity of KentuckyLexingtonUSA
  3. 3.Center for Environmental and Systems BiochemistryUniversity of KentuckyLexingtonUSA

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