Advertisement

Phloem pp 153-162 | Cite as

Noninvasive Determination of Phloem Transport Speed with Carbon-14 (14C)

  • Christopher Vincent
  • Peter E. H. Minchin
  • Johannes LiescheEmail author
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 2014)

Abstract

Studying the phloem, through which organic substances are distributed between plant organs, is challenging because of its position deep inside the plant body and its sensitivity to manipulation. The speed of phloem transport can be studied by tracers. Here a protocol for the use of 14C-labeled photoassimilate to measure phloem transport speed is provided. A major advantage of this method is its noninvasiveness, as the isotope is supplied as 14CO2, which is converted in source leaves to 14C-sugars, whose movement is then followed by photomultiplier-based X-ray detectors positioned close to the stem. The same method can be used to determine partitioning among sinks over time and rates of export from sources. The relatively simple handling enables medium throughput experiments under controlled conditions.

Key words

Phloem transport Carbon allocation Sieve element Isotope Carbon tracing Bremsstrahlung Transport velocity 

References

  1. 1.
    Liesche J, Patrick J (2017) An update on phloem transport: a simple bulk flow under complex regulation. F1000Res 6:2096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bonan GB (2008) Forests and climate change: forcings, feedbacks, and the climate benefits of forests. Science 320:1444–1449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Litton CM, Raich JW, Ryan MG (2007) Carbon allocation in forest ecosystems. Glob Chang Biol 13:2089–2109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Epron D, Bahn M, Derrien D, Lattanzi FA, Pumpanen J, Gessler A, Hogberg P, Maillard P, Dannoura M, Gerant D, Buchmann N (2012) Pulse-labelling trees to study carbon allocation dynamics: a review of methods, current knowledge and future prospects. Tree Physiol 32:776–798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Blechschmidt-Schneider S (1990) Phloem transport in Picea abies (L.) Karst in mid-winter. Trees 4:179–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dickson RE, Isebrands JS, Tomlinson PT (1990) Distribution and metabolism of current photosynthate by single-flush northern red oak seedlings. Tree Physiol 7:65–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hubeau M, Steppe K (2015) Plant-PET scans: in vivo mapping of xylem and phloem functioning. Trends Plant Sci 20:676–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Minchin P, Thorpe M (2003) Using the short-lived isotope 11C in mechanistic studies of photosynthate transport. Funct Plant Biol 30:831–841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Black MZ, Minchin P, Gould N, Patterson K, Clearwater MJ (2012) Measurement of Bremsstrahlung radiation for in vivo monitoring of C-14 tracer distribution between fruit and roots of kiwifruit (Actinidia arguta) cuttings. Planta 236:1327–1337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liesche J, Jensen KH, Minchin P, Bohr T, Schulz A (2013) Theoretical and experimental determination of phloem translocation speeds in gymnosperm and angiosperm trees. Acta Hortic 991:45–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Liesche J, Windt C, Bohr T, Schulz A, Jensen KH (2015) Slower phloem transport in gymnosperm trees can be attributed to higher sieve element resistance. Tree Physiol 35:376–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sowinski P, Bednarek B, Jelen K, Kowalski TZ, Ostrowski KW (1990) An in vivo method for the transport study of assimilated substances using C-14 isotope and X-ray proportional-counters. Acta Physiol Plant 12:139–148Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pinheiro J, Bates D, DebRoy S, Sarkar D, R Core Team (2018) nlme: Linear and nonlinear mixed effects models. R package version 3.1–137, https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=nlme.
  14. 14.
    Xu Q, Chen S, Yunjuan R, Chen S, Liesche J (2018) Regulation of sucrose transporters and phloem loading in response to environmental cues. Plant Physiol 176:930–945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Knox K, Paterlini A, Thomson S, Oparka K (2018) the coumarin glucoside, esculin, reveals rapid changes in phloem-transport velocity in response to environmental cues. Plant Physiol 178:795–807CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher Vincent
    • 1
  • Peter E. H. Minchin
    • 2
  • Johannes Liesche
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Horticultural SciencesUniversity of FloridaLake AlfredUSA
  2. 2.New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food ResearchMotueka Research CentreMotuekaNew Zealand
  3. 3.College of Life SciencesNorthwest A&F UniversityYanglingChina

Personalised recommendations