Recent Updates in Animal Models of Nicotine Withdrawal: Intracranial Self-Stimulation and Somatic Signs

  • Brandon Levin
  • Isaac Wilks
  • Sijie Tan
  • Azin Behnood-Rod
  • Adriaan BruijnzeelEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 2011)


Tobacco use is one of the leading causes of disease, disability, and death in the world. Despite the negative health consequences of smoking and the fact that most people would like to quit, very few people are able to maintain abstinence. Nicotine, the main psychoactive component of tobacco, is mildly rewarding and plays a role in the initiation and maintenance of smoking. Cessation of nicotine intake induces mild somatic withdrawal symptoms that may contribute to the maintenance of smoking. However, it has been hypothesized that negative affective nicotine withdrawal signs are of greater motivational significance in contributing to relapse and continued smoking (Markou and Koob (eds) Intracranial self-stimulation thresholds as a measure of reward, vol 2. Oxford University Press, New York, 1993; Koob et al., Semin Neurosci 5:351–358, 1993). Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) has been established as a method to assess the acute rewarding properties of nicotine and the dysphoria associated with nicotine withdrawal. The ICSS method provides a means to measure the negative affective aspects of nicotine withdrawal in animal models and may contribute to the understanding of the neurobiological bases of nicotine dependence.

Key words

Nicotine Animal models Withdrawal Intracranial self-stimulation Somatic withdrawal signs 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brandon Levin
    • 1
  • Isaac Wilks
    • 1
  • Sijie Tan
    • 1
  • Azin Behnood-Rod
    • 1
  • Adriaan Bruijnzeel
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, McKnight Brain InstituteUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

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