Current Situation of Malaria in Africa

  • Wilfred Fon Mbacham
  • Lawrence Ayong
  • Magellan Guewo-Fokeng
  • Valerie Makoge
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 2013)


Malaria infection is one of the major causes of deaths in the African continent. The high burden of malaria in Africa is due to P. falciparum, which adapts and cospecializes with Anopheles gambiae, the most effective and widespread malaria vector. Since 2000, the incidence of malaria has been reduced by 17% and malaria mortality rates by 26%. However, the rate of decline has stalled and even reversed in some regions since 2014. In 2017 as described by the latest World malaria report, 219 million malaria cases were reported, up from 2017 million cases reported in 2016 in 91 countries, and the global tally of malaria deaths reached 435,000 deaths, compared with 451,000 estimated deaths in 2016. Despite these achievements, the African region continues to account for about 92% of malaria cases and deaths worldwide. Therefore, it is important to master the current situation of malaria in Africa to see how to better plan its elimination. In this chapter, we present the current situation and prospective means to improve it, including a salutogenesis approach.

Key words

Malaria Burden Salutogenesis Africa 


  1. 1.
    World Health Organization (2016) World malaria report. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lengeler C (2004) Insecticide-treated bed nets and curtains for preventing malaria. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2):CD000363Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hawley WA, Phillips-Howard PA, ter Kuile FO et al (2003) Community-wide effects of permethrin-treated bed nets on child mortality and malaria morbidity in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68:121–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Howard SC, Omumbo J, Nevill C et al (2009) Evidence for a mass community effect of insecticide-treated bed nets on the incidence of malaria on the Kenyan coast. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94:357–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Midzi N, Mtapuri-Zinyowera S, Mapingure MP et al (2011) Knowledge attitudes and practices of grade three primary schoolchildren in relation to schistosomiasis, soil transmitted helminthiasis and malaria in Zimbabwe. BMC Infect Dis 11:169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Abate A, Degarege A, Erko B (2013) Community knowledge, attitude and practice about malaria in a low endemic setting of Shewa Robit Town, northeastern Ethiopia. BMC Public Health 13:312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mutua EN, Bukachi SA, Bett BK et al (2016) Lay knowledge and management of malaria in Baringo county, Kenya. Malar J 15:486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Adongo PB, Kirkwood B, Kendall C (2005) How local community knowledge about malaria affects insecticide-treated net use in northern Ghana. Trop Med Int Health 10:366–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    O’Neill S, Gryseels C, Dierickx S et al (2015) Foul wind, spirits and witchcraft: illness conceptions and healthseeking behaviour for malaria in the Gambia. Malar J 14:167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Njama D, Dorsey G, Guwatudde D et al (2003) Urban malaria: primary caregivers’ knowledge, attitudes, practices and predictors of malaria incidence in a cohort of Ugandan children. Trop Med Int Health 8:685–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Krezanoski PJ, Tsai AC, Hamer DH et al (2014) Household malaria knowledge and its association with bed net ownership in settings without large-scale distribution programs: evidence from rural Madagascar. J Glob Health 4:10401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shimaponda-Mataa NM, Tembo-Mwase E, Gebreslasie M et al (2017) Knowledge, attitudes and practices in the control and prevention of malaria in four endemic provinces of Zambia. S Afr J Infect Dis 32:29–39Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kanyangarara M, Hamapumbu H, Mamini E et al (2018) Malaria knowkedge and bed net use in three transmission settings in Southern Africa. Malar J 17:41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    World malaria report (2017) Geneva: World Health Organization. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGOGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    World malaria report (2018) Geneva: World Health Organization. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGOGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Panter-Brick C, Clarke SE, Lomas H et al (2006) Culturally compelling strategies for behaviour change: a social ecology model and case study in malaria prevention. Soc Sci Med 62:2810–2825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shililu J, Ghebremeskel T, Mengistu S et al (2003) High seasonal variation in entomologic inoculation rates in Eritrea, a semi-arid region of unstable malaria in Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69:607–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Okello PE, Van Bortel W, Byaruhanga AM et al (2006) Variation in malaria transmission intensity in seven sites throughout Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75:219–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Carter R, Mendis KN, Roberts D (2000) Spatial targeting of interventions against malaria. Bull World Health Organ 78:1401–1411PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mabaso ML, Craig M, Ross A et al (2007) Environmental predictors of the seasonality of malaria transmission in Africa: the challenge. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76:33–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kelly-Hope LA, McKenzie FE (2009) The multiplicity of malaria transmission: a review of entomological inoculation rate measurements and methods across sub-Saharan Africa. Malar J 8:19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    de Souza D, Kelly-Hope L, Lawson B et al (2012) Environmental factors associated with the distribution of Anopheles gambiae s.s in Ghana; an important vector of lymphatic filariasis and malaria. PLoS One 5:e9927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Charlwood JD, Kihonda J, Sama S et al (1995) The rise and fall of Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Tanzanian village. Bull Entomol Res 85:37–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Drakeley C, Schellenberg D, Kihonda J et al (2003) An estimation of the entomological inoculation rate for Ifakara: a semi-urban area in a region of intense malaria transmission in Tanzania. Trop Med Int Health 8:767–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cairns M, Roca-Feltrer A, Garske T et al (2012) Estimating the potential public health impact of seasonal malaria chemo-prevention in African children. Nat Commun 3:881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhou G, Munga S, Minakawa N et al (2007) Spatial relationship between adult malaria vector abundance and environmental factors in western Kenya highlands. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77:29–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Manda H, Gouagna LC, Foster WA et al (2007) Effect of discriminative plant-sugar feeding on the survival and fecundity of Anopheles gambiae. Malar J 6:113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Okech BA, Gouagna LC, Yan G et al (2007) Larval habitats of Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) influences vector competence to Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Malar J 6:50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Guerra CA, Snow RW, Hay SI (2006) A global assessment of closed forests, deforestation and malaria risk. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 100:189–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Achard F, Eva HD, Stibig HJ et al (2002) Determination of deforestation rates of the world’s humid tropical forests. Science 297:999–1002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mayaux P, Holmgren P, Achard F et al (2005) Tropical forest cover change in the 1990s and options for future monitoring. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 360:373–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Erhart A, Ngo DT, Phan VK et al (2005) Epidemiology of forest malaria in central Vietnam: a large scale cross-sectional survey. Malar J 4:58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Eisele TP, Larsen D, Steketee RW (2010) Protective efficacy of interventions for preventing malaria mortality in children in Plasmodium falciparum endemic areas. Int J Epidemiol 39:i88–i101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bhatt S, Weiss DJ, Cameron E et al (2015) The effect of malaria control on Plasmodium falciparum in Africa between 2000 and 2015. Nature 526:207–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    World Health Organization (2013) WHO recommendations for achieving universal coverage with long-lasting insecticidal nets in malaria control (revised March 2014). WHO, Geneva. ( Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bhatt S, Gething P (2014) Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in Africa 2000–2016: coverage, system efficiency and future needs for achieving international targets. Malar J 13(Suppl 1):029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    World Health Organization (2018) Global Malaria Programme, Malaria Policy Advisory Committee (MPAC) meeting report, April 2018.
  38. 38.
    Alnazly E (2016) Coping strategies and socio-demographic characteristics among Jordanian caregivers of patients receiving hemodialysis. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 27:101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Antonovsky A (1979) Health, stress, and coping, 1st edn. Jossey-Bass, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Antonovsky A (1987) The Jossey-Bass social and behavioral science series and the Jossey-Bass health series. In: Unraveling the mystery of health: how people manage stress and stay well. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CAGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dardet CA, Tomas AB, Boonekamp G, Breton E, Contu P, Fosse E, Hofmeister A, Juvinya D, Kennedy L, Koelen M, Lindström B, Masanot G, Pavlekoviç G, Pocetta G, Vaandrager L, Wagemakers A (2016). Twenty-five years of capacity building. ETC-PHHP Team 2016Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Eriksson M, Lindström B, Lilja J (2007) A sense of coherence and health. Salutogenesis in a societal context: Aland, a special case? J Epidemiol Community Health 61:684–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lindstrom B, Eriksson J (2010) The hitchhiker’s guide to salutogenesis: salutogenic pathways to health promotion. Helsinki, Folkhalsan Research CentreGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Makoge V, Hogeling L, Maat H et al (2017) Poverty-related diseases: factors that predict coping in two Cameroonian settings. Health Promot Int. Scholar
  45. 45.
    Makoge V, Maat H, Vaandrager L et al (2017) Health-seeking behaviour towards poverty-related disease (PRDs): a qualitative study of people living in camps and on campuses in Cameroon. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 11:e0005218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Makoge V, Maat H, Vaandrager L et al (2017) Poverty-related diseases (PRDs): unravelling complexities in disease responses in Cameroon. Trop Med Health 45:2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Marmot M (2005) Social determinants of health inequalities. Lancet 365:1099–1104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mittelmark MB et al (2017) The handbook of salutogenesis. Springer Open, Heidelberg. Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ntonifor NH, Veyufambom S (2016) Assessing the effective use of mosquito nets in the prevention of malaria in some parts of Mezam division, Northwest Region Cameroon. Malar J 15:390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sachs JD (2012) From millennium development goals to sustainable development goals. Lancet 379:2206–2211CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wilfred Fon Mbacham
    • 1
  • Lawrence Ayong
    • 2
  • Magellan Guewo-Fokeng
    • 3
  • Valerie Makoge
    • 4
  1. 1.Faculty of ScienceUniversity of Yaoundé 1YaoundéCameroon
  2. 2.Malaria Research UnitCentre Pasteur du CamerounYaoundéCameroon
  3. 3.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of Yaoundé 1YaoundéCameroon
  4. 4.Institute of Medical Research and Medicinal Plants Studies (IMPM)Ministry of Scientific Research and InnovationYaoundéCameroon

Personalised recommendations