G1 Premature Chromosome Condensation (PCC) Assay

  • Ryuichi Okayasu
  • Cuihua Liu
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1984)


Premature chromosome condensation (PCC) is a sensitive and unique way to detect interphase chromosome damage and its recovery in mammalian cells irradiated with ionizing radiation. In this chapter, we describe G1 PCC assay with which one can measure immediate chromosome breaks in G1 type chromosomes and their repair/rejoining. In order to induce G1 PCC, one needs to fuse mitotic cells with G1 cells to be tested. There are two methods to fuse cells; one is to use Sendai virus or its equivalent, and another method needs polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a fusing agent. The date obtained with PCC assay can bridge the gap between radiation-induced DNA damage (mainly double strand breaks) and chromosome aberrations observable at metaphase stage.

Key words

Premature chromosome condensation (PCC) G1-phase Cell fusion Sendai virus Polyethylene glycol (PEG) DNA double strand breaks 



This work was supported by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI grants 24249067 and 24591859.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ryuichi Okayasu
    • 1
  • Cuihua Liu
    • 1
  1. 1.National Institute of Radiological SciencesNational Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and TechnologyChibaJapan

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