A Close-Up View of the Impact of Arachidonic Acid on the Phagocyte NADPH Oxidase
The NADPH oxidase NOX2 complex consists of assembled cytosolic and redox membrane proteins. In mammalian cells, natural arachidonic acid (cis-AA), released by activated phospholipase-A2, plays an important role in the activation of the NADPH oxidase, but the mechanism of action of cis-AA is still a matter of debate. In cell-free systems, cis-AA is commonly used for activation although its structural effects are still unclear. Undoubtedly cis-AA participates in the synergistic multi-partner assembly that can be hardly studied at the molecular level in vivo due to cellular complexity. The capacity of this anionic amphiphilic fatty acid to activate the oxidase is mainly explained by its ability to disrupt intramolecular bonds, mimicking phosphorylation events in cell signaling and therefore allowing protein-protein interactions. Interestingly the geometric isomerism of the fatty acid and its purity are crucial for optimal superoxide production in cell-free assays. Indeed, optimal NADPH oxidase assembly was hampered by the substitution of the cis form by the trans forms of AA isomers (Souabni et al., BBA-Biomembranes 1818:2314–2324, 2012). Structural analysis of the changes induced by these two compounds, by circular dichroism and by biochemical methods, revealed differences in the interaction between subunits. We describe how the specific geometry of AA plays an important role in the activation of the NOX2 complex.
Key wordsCell-free system Superoxide anion Recombinant proteins Thiol groups Arachidonic acid Cis-trans isomer fatty acid Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism
Authors want to acknowledge Drs. M. Réfrégiers and F. Wien for SRCD measurements.
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