Protein Expression Analysis by Western Blot and Protein–Protein Interactions

  • María Dolores Cima-Cabal
  • Fernando Vazquez
  • Juan R. de los Toyos
  • María del Mar García-SuárezEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1968)


Western blot analysis is widely used for detecting protein expression, analysis of protein–protein interactions, and searching for new biomarkers. Also, it is a diagnostic tool used for detection of human diseases and microorganism infections.

Some Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins are important virulence factors and a few of them are diagnostic markers. Here, we describe the detection of two pneumococcal proteins, pneumolysin and PpmA, in human urine by using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies.

Key words

Western-blot Pneumolysin PpmA Monoclonal antibody Urine 



The authors acknowledge Dr. Federico Iovino from Karolinska Institute for inviting us to write this chapter and for reviewing the manuscript, and Dr. Fermín Torrano for his constant support in the preparation of this chapter.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • María Dolores Cima-Cabal
    • 1
  • Fernando Vazquez
    • 2
    • 3
  • Juan R. de los Toyos
    • 4
  • María del Mar García-Suárez
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Escuela Superior de Ingeniería y Tecnología (ESIT)Universidad Internacional de La Rioja (UNIR)LogroñoSpain
  2. 2.Departamento de MicrobiologíaHospital Universitario Central de Asturias & Fundación para la Investigación y la Innovación Biosanitaria del Principado de Asturias (FINBA)OviedoSpain
  3. 3.Departamento de Biología Funcional & OphthalmologyVision Sciences and Advanced Therapies Research Group, Instituto Universitario Fernández-Vega, Universidad de OviedoOviedoSpain
  4. 4.Área de Inmunología, Facultad de Medicina y Ciencias de la SaludUniversidad de OviedoOviedoSpain

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