Optimal Conditions for Streptococcus pneumoniae Culture: In Solid and Liquid Media

  • Norma SuárezEmail author
  • Esther Texeira
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1968)


Control of Streptococcus pneumoniae is mainly achieved by the use of existing vaccines. Capsular polysaccharides are the major antigenic component and are also the main virulence factor.

Capsular polysaccharides must fulfill requirements of purity, uniformity, and an accurate molecular weight to be used as vaccine antigens. Vaccine production largely relies on cultivation of the pathogen in appropriate conditions.

Here we describe widely used techniques to culture S. pneumoniae based on solid or complex liquid media, which are successfully applied in the diagnosis of the pathogen and in development and production of S. pneumoniae vaccines. Furthermore, we present a new chemically defined medium that can be used at lab scale.

Key words

S. pneumoniae Cultivation media Chemically defined media (CDM) 


  1. 1.
    InstitutMerieux. (1980) Procédé de purification de polyosides de Streptococcus pneumoniae et vaccin à base de polyosides ainsi purifiés Brevet Belge No. 8026320Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kim SN, Min KK, Choi HI, Kim SW, Pio SN, Rhee DK (1996) Optimization of culture conditions for production of pneumococcal capsular polysacharide type IV. Arch Pharm Res 19(3):173–177Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Massaldi H, Besssio MI, Suarez N, Texeira E, Rossi S, Ferreira F (2010) Features of bacterial growth and polysaccharide production of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 14. Biotechnol Appl Biochem 55:37–43. Scholar
  4. 4.
    Leal MM, Pereira DSG, Jessouroun E, Couto MAPG, Pereira N (2001) Investigation of cultivation conditions for capsular polysaccharide production by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 14. Electron J 14:1–7. Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tarahomjoo S, Jalali M (2015) Investigation of appropriate cultivation approach for capsular polysaccharide production by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19 American journal of. Microbiol Res 3(6):197–200. Scholar
  6. 6.
    Suárez N, Franco Fraguas L, Ferreira F, Massaldi M (2008) Improved conjugation and purification strategies for the preparation of protein polysaccharide conjugates. J Chromatogr A 1213:169–175. Scholar
  7. 7.
    Suárez N (2016) Optimal conditions for Streptococcus pneumoniae culture and for polysaccharide production for vaccines. Biol Med 8(6).
  8. 8.
    Hoeprich PO (1957) Evaluation of an improved chemically defined medium for the culture of Diplococcus pneumoniae. J Bacteriol 74:587–590PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Luria SE, Burrous JW (1957) Hybridization between Escherichia Coli and Shigella. J Bacteriol 74:461–476PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Russell FM, Biribo SSN, Selvaraj G, Oppedisano F, Warren S, Seduadua A, Mulholland EK, Carapetis JR (2006) As a bacterial culture medium, citrated sheep blood agar is a practical alternative to citrated human blood agar in Laboratories of Developing Countries. J Clin Microbiol 44(9):3346–3351. Scholar
  11. 11.
    Texeira E, Checa J, Rial A, Chabalgoity JA, Suárez N (2015) A new chemically defined medium for cultivation of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1. J Biotech Res 6:54–62. ISSN: 1944-3285Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Van De Rijn I, Kessler E (1980) Growth characteristics of group a streptococci in a new chemically defined medium. Infect Immun 27(2):444–448PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hewitt LF, Todd EW (1932) A new culture medium for the production of antigenic streptococcal hæmolysin. J Pathol Bacteriol 35(1):973–974Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    McCullough NB (1949) Laboratory tests in the diagnosis of brucellosis. Am J Public Health Nations Health 39:866–869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Murray PR, Baron EJ, Pfaller MA, Tenover FC, Yolken RH (1999) Manual of clinical microbiology, 7th edn. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Neufeld F (1902) Über die Agglutination der Pneumokokken und über die Theorien der Agglutination. Z Hyg Infekt 40:54–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of HygieneUniversity of the RepublicMontevideoUruguay

Personalised recommendations