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β-Arrestins: Multitask Scaffolds Orchestrating the Where and When in Cell Signalling

  • Stéphane A. LaporteEmail author
  • Mark G. H. ScottEmail author
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1957)

Abstract

The β-arrestins (β-arrs) were initially appreciated for the roles they play in the desensitization and endocytosis of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). They are now also known to act as multifunctional adaptor proteins binding many non-receptor protein partners to control multiple signalling pathways. β-arrs therefore act as key regulatory hubs at the crossroads of external cell inputs and functional outputs in cellular processes ranging from gene transcription to cell growth, survival, cytoskeletal regulation, polarity, and migration. An increasing number of studies have also highlighted the scaffolding roles β-arrs play in vivo in both physiological and pathological conditions, which opens up therapeutic avenues to explore. In this introductory review chapter, we discuss the functional roles that β-arrs exert to control GPCR function, their dynamic scaffolding roles and how this impacts signal transduction events, compartmentalization of β-arrs, how β-arrs are regulated themselves, and how the combination of these events culminates in cellular regulation.

Key words

β-Arrestin GPCR Desensitization Endocytosis Protein scaffolds Signal transduction Compartmentalization Biased signalling 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Work in the group of Mark G.H. Scott is supported by the Fondation ARC pour la Recherche sur le Cancer, Ligue Contre le Cancer (comité de L’Oise), France-Canada Research Foundation, the Who am I? laboratory of excellence (grant ANR-11-LABX-0071) funded by the “Investments for the Future” program operated by the French National Research Agency (grant ANR-11-IDEX-0005-01), CNRS, and INSERM. Work in the Laporte laboratory is supported by Canadian Institutes of Health Research grants (MOP-74603).

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Center (RI-MUHC)McGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology and TherapeuticsMcGill UniversityMontréalCanada
  3. 3.Department of Anatomy and Cell BiologyMcGill UniversityMontréalCanada
  4. 4.RI-MUHC/Glen SiteMontréalCanada
  5. 5.Institut CochinINSERM U1016ParisFrance
  6. 6.CNRS, UMR 8104ParisFrance
  7. 7.Univ. Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris CitéParisFrance

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