Genetic nephropathies represent a challenging class of disorders to be treated by gene therapy. This is primarily due to the filtering properties of the kidney itself, which does not allow the vehicle carrying the transgene of interest to remain long enough in the organ to penetrate efficiently into the nephrotic cells. Also, the kidney has a complex anatomical structure composed of different cell types compartmentalized within isolated anatomic structures that limit their access. Here, we describe a simple surgical procedure to deliver recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) to the whole kidney based on the hydraulic force of the retrograde renal vein injection. In its clinical form, this procedure would correspond to a renal venography where a catheter is threaded retrograde from the femoral vein under fluoroscopic guidance.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Springer Nature is developing a new tool to find and evaluate Protocols. Learn more
Devuyst O, Knoers NV, Remuzzi G et al (2014) Rare inherited kidney diseases: challenges, opportunities, and perspectives. Lancet 383(9931):1844–1859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Knoll G (2008) Trends in kidney transplantation over the past decade. Drugs 68(Suppl 1):3–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davis CL, Delmonico FL (2005) Living-donor kidney transplantation: a review of the current practices for the live donor. J Am Soc Nephrol 16(7):2098–2110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cecka JM (2008) Kidney transplantation in the United States. Clin Transpl 1–18Google Scholar
Rocca CJ, Ur SN, Harrison F et al (2014) rAAV9 combined with renal vein injection is optimal for kidney-targeted gene delivery: conclusion of a comparative study. Gene Ther 21(6):618–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beckmann CF, Abrams HL (1980) Renal venography: anatomy, technique, applications, analysis of 132 venograms, and a review of the literature. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 3(1):45–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maruyama H, Hiquchi N, Nishikawa Y et al (2002) Kidney-targeted naked DNA transfer by retrograde renal vein injection in rats. Hum Gene Ther 13(3):455–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chetboul V, Klonjkowski B, Lefebvre HP et al (2001) Short-term efficiency and safety of gene delivery into canine kidneys. Nephrol Dial Transplant 16(3):608–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lipkowitz MS, Hanss B, Tulchin N et al (1999) Transduction of renal cells in vitro and in vivo by adeno-associated virus gene therapy vectors. J Am Soc Nephrol 10(9):1908–1915PubMedGoogle Scholar
Chen S, Agarwal A, Glushakova OY et al (2003) Gene delivery in renal tubular epithelial cells using recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors. J Am Soc Nephrol 14(4):947–958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Takeda S, Takahashi M, Mizukami H et al (2004) Successful gene transfer using adeno-associated virus vectors into the kidney: comparison among adeno-associated virus serotype 1-5 vectors in vitro and in vivo. Nephron Exp Nephrol 96(4):e119–e126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Qi YF, Li QH, Shenoy V et al (2013) Comparison of the transduction efficiency of tyrosine-mutant adeno-associated virus serotype vectors in kidney. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 40(1):53–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar