S100 Proteins as Biomarkers in Risk Estimations for Malignant Transformation in Oral Lesions

  • Rainer Probstmeier
  • Dominik Kraus
  • Matthias Wenghoefer
  • Jochen WinterEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1929)


Oncologic relevant members of S100 proteins are described as promising biomarkers in molecular pathology for risk estimation in oral neoplasia exhibiting different stages of malignancy: gingiva as healthy tissue, irritation fibroma as benign, leukoplakia as precancerous, and oral squamous cell carcinoma as malignant entity. Gene expression levels of S100A4 (metastasin), S100A7 (psoriasin), S100A8 (calgranulin A), and S100A9 (calgranulin B) were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, immunohistochemistry-based microscopy was used to examine cellular localization and distribution of these biomarkers in tissue sections. The results indicate that S100 proteins represent promising biomarkers for early-stage diagnosis in oral lesions. The inclusion of expression profiles and ratios for each entity even improves their diagnostic validity.

Key words

S100 proteins Calcium binding EF-hand Molecular pathology Biomarkers Oral lesions Early-stage diagnosis 



R. Probstmeier and D. Kraus contributed equally to this work.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rainer Probstmeier
    • 1
  • Dominik Kraus
    • 2
  • Matthias Wenghoefer
    • 3
  • Jochen Winter
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Neuro- and Tumor Cell Biology Group, Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital BonnUniversity of BonnBonnGermany
  2. 2.Department of Prosthodontics, Preclinical Education, and Material SciencesUniversity of BonnBonnGermany
  3. 3.Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Plastic SurgeryUniversity of BonnBonnGermany
  4. 4.Department of Periodontology, Operative and Preventive DentistryUniversity of BonnBonnGermany

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