Ca2+-Binding Proteins of the EF-Hand Superfamily: Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers and Novel Therapeutic Targets

  • Claus W. Heizmann
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1929)


A multitude of Ca2+-sensor proteins containing the specific Ca2+-binding motif (helix-loop-helix, called EF-hand) are of major clinical relevance in a many human diseases. Measurements of troponin, the first intracellular Ca-sensor protein to be discovered, is nowadays the “gold standard” in the diagnosis of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Mutations have been identified in calmodulin and linked to inherited ventricular tachycardia and in patients affected by severe cardiac arrhythmias. Parvalbumin, when introduced into the diseased heart by gene therapy to increase contraction and relaxation speed, is considered to be a novel therapeutic strategy to combat heart failure. S100 proteins, the largest subgroup with the EF-hand protein family, are closely associated with cardiovascular diseases, various types of cancer, inflammation, and autoimmune pathologies. The intention of this review is to summarize the clinical importance of this protein family and their use as biomarkers and potential drug targets, which could help to improve the diagnosis of human diseases and identification of more selective therapeutic interventions.

Key words

Calcium-binding EF-hand Cardiomyopathy Cancer Inflammation Allergy Biomarkers Diagnostic Clinical chemistry Laboratory medicine Drug targets 



I would like to thank Drs Anthea Rowlerson and Dean Malencik for critical reading of the manuscript and Melanie Heizmann for secretarial assistance.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claus W. Heizmann
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics, Division of Clinical Chemistry and BiochemistryUniversity of ZürichZürichSwitzerland

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