Generating Genetic Mosaic Mouse Embryos or Organoids for Studies of Kidney Development

  • Frank CostantiniEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1926)


For studies of gene function during development, it can be very useful to generate mosaic embryos in which a small subset of cells in a given cell lineage lacks a gene of interest and carries a marker that allows the mutant cells to be specifically visualized and compared to wild-type cells. Several methods have been used to generate genetically mosaic mouse kidneys for such studies. These include (1) chimeric embryos generated using embryonic stem cells, (2) chimeric renal organoids generated by dissociation and reaggregation of the fetal kidneys, (3) generation of a knockout allele with a built-in reporter gene, (4) mosaic analysis with double markers (MADM), and (5) mosaic mutant analysis with spatial and temporal control of recombination (MASTR). In this chapter, these five methods are described, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

Key words

Mosaic Chimera MADM MASTR Knockout Conditional knockout Organoid Cre recombinase FLP recombinase 



Research in the author’s laboratory has been supported by grants 2R01DK083289 and 5R01DK075578 from the NIH. I thank Dr. Shifaan Thowfeequ for helpful comments on the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Genetics and Development, 1418 Hammer Health Sciences CenterColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

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