An Experimental System for Examining Phototropic Response of Gametophytic Shoots in the Moss Physcomitrella patens

  • Liang Bao
  • Kotaro T. Yamamoto
  • Tomomichi Fujita
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1924)


Shoot phototropism benefits growth and metabolism in land plants by enabling them to position their photosynthetic organs in favorable light conditions. Nonvascular land plants, like the ancestors of modern mosses, are believed to have been among the first plants to occupy the land. To understand the evolutional history of shoot phototropism in land plants, we have established a system for experimentally studying phototropism in gametophores of the moss Physcomitrella patens. Here we will describe the key points in our system, including obtaining etiolated gametophores, the light sources used for inducing bending, and the methods for evaluation of phototropic responses.

Key words

Nonvascular plants Physcomitrella patens Gametophores Shoot phototropism Evolution 



The authors would like to thank Dr. Mark Running of the University of Louisville for critical reading and revising the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Liang Bao
    • 1
  • Kotaro T. Yamamoto
    • 2
  • Tomomichi Fujita
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of ScienceHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan

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