Description of Ovariectomy Protocol in Mice

  • Vanessa R. Souza
  • Eduardo Mendes
  • Mateus Casaro
  • Ana Tada F. B. Antiorio
  • Fernando A. Oliveira
  • Caroline M. Ferreira
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1916)


Estrogen and ovarian function decline are relevant characteristics of menopause period. Numerous physiological, metabolic and immunological alterations in the female body occur in the menopause period and some of these changes remain uncertain. The animal model that mimics menopause phase is an important approach to better comprehend the biological process involved in this period of women life. Ovariectomy is a procedure where ovaries are surgically excised and have been a valuable tool for understanding estrogen deficiency through animal experiments. Despite the diversity of ovariectomy protocols, the aim of this chapter is to provide a comprehensive guideline in performing ovariectomy in mice. Furthermore, isoflurane anesthesia system, postoperative care and surgery success evaluation will be described. We highlight that all procedures must be carried out by a qualified and trained professional, respecting ethical and safety principles.

Key words

Ovariectomy Menopause Ovaries Female reproductive tract 



This study was funded by São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP), project number 2012/50410-8 to CMF; 2012/50336-2 and 2016/50484-2 to FAO. CNPq (The National Council for Scientific and Technological Development), project number 486037/2012-6 to CMF. Also, the authors would like to acknowledge for the fellowships provided by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - Brasil (CAPES) -Finance Code 001 to VRS and EM; São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP), project number 2016/13496-2 to MCC.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vanessa R. Souza
    • 1
  • Eduardo Mendes
    • 1
  • Mateus Casaro
    • 1
  • Ana Tada F. B. Antiorio
    • 2
  • Fernando A. Oliveira
    • 3
    • 4
  • Caroline M. Ferreira
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Institute of Environmental, Chemistry and Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversidade Federal de São PauloDiademaBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Pathology, Veterinary Medicine and Animal ScienceUniversity of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory (LaNeC), Center for Mathematics, Computing and Cognition (CMCC)Federal University of ABC–UFABCSão Bernardo do CampoBrazil
  4. 4.Department of NeuroscienceCarleton UniversityOttawaCanada

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