Containment Options for the Freeze-Drying of Biological Entities and Potent Materials

  • Chris CherryEmail author
Part of the Methods in Pharmacology and Toxicology book series (MIPT)


This chapter examines the characteristics and use of containment systems to perform various applications of freeze-drying. Specific consideration is given to containment system design, effects on mass and heat transfer, containment of microorganisms, and recommendations for the future application of containment options.

An assessment is made of previously characterized containment systems developed for freeze-drying which include a reusable aluminum box and the disposable Gore Lyoguard. Common design features of both were determined and a suitable, cost-effective, off the shelf alternative identified in the form of sterilization pouches. Further consideration is given to previous studies that have characterized and compared the effects on mass and heat transfer that barriers cause by increasing resistance to water vapor movement. In addition, the subsequent increases to heat transfer brought about by resistance to mass transfer are also further considered.

Key words

Containment Lyophilization Sterile processing Contamination Culture Disposables 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.PDR, Cardiff Met UniversityCardiffUK

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