Studying YAP-Mediated 3D Morphogenesis Using Fish Embryos and Human Spheroids
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The transcription coactivator, Yes-associated protein (YAP), which is a nuclear effector of the Hippo signaling pathway, has been shown to be a mechano-transducer. By using mutant fish and human 3D spheroids, we have recently demonstrated that YAP is also a mechano-effector. YAP functions in three-dimensional (3D) morphogenesis of organ and global body shape by controlling actomyosin-mediated tissue tension. In this chapter, we present a platform that links the findings in fish embryos with human cells. The protocols for analyzing tissue tension-mediated global body shape/organ morphogenesis in vivo and ex vivo using medaka fish embryos and in vitro using human cell spheroids represent useful tools for unraveling the molecular mechanisms by which YAP functions in regulating global body/organ morphogenesis.
Key wordsTissue tension 3D morphogenesis YAP Medaka Zebrafish Mutant Human spheroid
We would like to thank Hiroshi Nishina (Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan), Hisato Kondoh (Kyoto Sangyo University, Japan), and other collaborators for the Kyoto medaka mutant screening. The research of gravity and YAP was partially supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 16H01643, 16H01644, and 17H05769. Yoichi Asaoka and Hitoshi Morita contributed equally to this chapter.
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