Introduction to FOXO Biology

  • Wolfgang Link
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1890)


Forkhead box O (FOXO) proteins are a family of transcription factors with four members in mammals, namely FOXO1, FOXO3a, FOXO4, and FOXO6. FOXO factors, originally identified as downstream regulators of the insulin pathway, are known to bind to the promoters of a broad variety of target genes and control several processes of key importance for cellular homeostasis including cellular energy production, oxidative stress resistance, and cell viability and proliferation. Accordingly, deregulation of FOXO proteins has been shown to play an essential role in metabolic disorders, human longevity, and the suppression of tumors. As the activity of these transcription factors is controlled by posttranslational modifications, inactivation of FOXOs occurs mostly due to the overactivation of their upstream modifying enzymes providing a wealth of possibilities for restoring FOXO activity pharmaceutically.

Key words

FOXO1 FOXO3a FOXO4 FOXO6 Daf-16 PI3K/AKT pathway Cancer Longevity 



This work was supported by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) Research Center Grant UID/BIM/04773/2013 Centre for Biomedical Research 1334. Work in the laboratory of WL was funded by a research grant from Liga Portuguesa Contra o Cancro—Núcleo Regional do Sul (LPCC/NRS).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wolfgang Link
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas “Alberto Sols” (CSIC-UAM), Arturo DuperierMadridSpain

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