Measuring Antibacterial Autophagy
Bacteria that escape from membrane-enclosed vacuoles to the cytosol of cells are targeted by autophagy, which recognizes and captures bacteria into autophagosomes wherein their proliferation is restricted. Here we discuss two means by which antibacterial autophagy is assessed: (1) the visualization and enumeration of autophagy protein recruitment to the vicinity of cytosolic bacteria by means of immunofluorescence microscopy and (2) the measurement of autophagy-dependent restriction of bacterial proliferation by means of colony-forming unit assay.
Key wordsSalmonella Galectin Ubiquitin Colony-forming unit Immunofluorescence
This work was supported by the MRC (U105170648) and the Wellcome Trust (WT104752MA).
- 14.Mizushima N, Yoshimori T, Ohsumi Y (2011) The role of Atg proteins in autophagosome formation. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 27:107–132. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-cellbio-092910-154005CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar