Assessment of Dynamic BCL-2 Protein Shuttling Between Outer Mitochondrial Membrane and Cytosol

  • Joachim Lauterwasser
  • Franziska Fimm-Todt
  • Frank EdlichEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1877)


BCL-2 proteins control stress-dependent commitment to the programmed cell death apoptosis. In nonapoptotic cells the proapoptotic BCL-2 proteins BAX and BAK but also prosurvival family members, like BCL-xL or MCL-1, translocate to the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) and retrotranslocate from the mitochondria back into the cytosol. The resulting equilibrium produces a broad range of localization pattern observed for BAX and BAK in human cells and shows correlation between relative BAX and BAK localizations and cellular predisposition to apoptosis. The retrotranslocation of BCL-2 proteins from the OMM can be measured using fluorescence-labeled protein in intact cells or endogenous protein from isolated heavy membrane fractions.

Key words

BCL-2 proteins Mitochondria Apoptosis Retrotranslocation BH3-only proteins 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joachim Lauterwasser
    • 1
  • Franziska Fimm-Todt
    • 1
  • Frank Edlich
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, ZBMZUniversity of FreiburgFreiburgGermany
  2. 2.BIOSS, Centre for Biological Signaling StudiesUniversity of FreiburgFreiburgGermany

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