Microinjection pp 361-371 | Cite as

Electrofusion of 2-Cell Embryos for Porcine Tetraploid Embryo Production

  • Qingran Kong
  • Zhonghua Liu
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1874)


The electrofusion of 2-cell embryos proves to be a simple and efficient way of generating mammalian tetraploid embryos. Many factors affect the fusion efficiency, such as fusion medium, electric field intensity, and fusion pulse length. In mice, production of tetraploid embryos by electrofusion has already been investigated; however, the investigation to produce porcine tetraploid embryos is seldom reported. In this chapter, we will describe oocytes in vitro maturation, in vitro fertilization, and the optimum conditions for electrofusion of 2-cell embryos to produce tetraploid embryos in pig.

Key words

Pig Tetraploid embryo Electrofusion 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qingran Kong
    • 1
  • Zhonghua Liu
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Animal Cellular and Genetics Engineering of Heilongjiang Province, College of Life ScienceNortheast Agricultural UniversityHarbinChina

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