Nitric Oxide pp 171-182 | Cite as

Electrophoretic Detection and Confocal Microscopic Imaging of Tyrosine Nitrated Proteins in Plant Tissue

  • Dhara Arora
  • Neha Singh
  • Satish C. Bhatla
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1747)


Tyrosine nitrated proteins can be detected in plant cells electrophoretically and their distribution can be monitored by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) imaging. One-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1D PAGE) followed by Western blotting using polyclonal antibody against 3-nitrotyrosine residues enables detection of tyrosine nitrated proteins in plant cells. Here we describe detection of tyrosine nitrated proteins in the homogenates derived from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedling cotyledons. Total soluble proteins obtained from tissue homogenates are resolved using vertical gel electrophoresis followed by their electrophoretic transfer on to a microporous membrane support for immunodetection. Spatial distribution of tyrosine nitrated proteins can be visualized using an antibody against 3-nitrotyrosine residues. Immunofluorescent localization is performed by cutting 7 μm thick wax sections of tissue followed by incubation in primary anti-nitrotyrosine antibody (dilution 1:200) and secondary Cy-3 labeled anti-rabbit IgG antibody (dilution 1:1500). Confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis is undertaken using argon lasers (ex: 530–550 nm and em: 570 nm) at pinhole 1. Modulation in the abundance and spatial localization of tyrosine nitrated proteins in plant tissues can be monitored using these techniques.

Key words

Antibodies Confocal laser scanning microscopy Cotyledons Immunoblot Immunodetection In vivo immunolocalization Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis Polyvinylidenedifluoride membrane Sunflower Tyrosine nitration Western blotting 



The authors are grateful to University of Delhi for R&D grant, Joint UGC-Israel Science Foundation Research Project [F.No. 6-9/2017(IC)], and Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dhara Arora
    • 1
  • Neha Singh
    • 1
  • Satish C. Bhatla
    • 1
  1. 1.Plant Physiology and Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of BotanyUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia

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