Principles of Spheroid Preparation for Creation of 3D Cardiac Tissue Using Biomaterial-Free Bioprinting
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Biomaterial-free three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is a relatively new field within 3D bioprinting, where 3D tissues are created from the fusion of 3D multicellular spheroids, without requiring biomaterial. This is in contrast to traditional 3D bioprinting, which requires biomaterials to carry the cells to be bioprinted, such as a hydrogel or decellularized extracellular matrix. Here, we discuss principles of spheroid preparation for biomaterial-free 3D bioprinting of cardiac tissue. In addition, we discuss principles of using spheroids as building blocks in biomaterial-free 3D bioprinting, including spheroid dislodgement, spheroid transfer, and spheroid fusion. These principles are important considerations, to create the next generation of biomaterial-free spheroid-based 3D bioprinters.
Key wordsTissue engineering Biofabrication 3D bioprinting Biomaterial-free Spheroids
The protocol and content of this chapter is based mostly on the published work by the authors [3, 4]. Written reprint permission has been obtained from the Journal of Visualized Experiments  and Nature Publishing Group , respectively, and is available from the editors upon request. In addition, we would like to acknowledge the other members in the laboratory who have used the 3D bioprinter, namely, Tom Zhang, Takuma Fukunishi, Cecillia Lui, Enoch Yeung, Yang Bai, and Joseph Boktor, and may have shared helpful experience.
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