Electrochemical biosensors provide rapid, selective, and sensitive diagnostic platforms for detecting and monitoring biochemical processes in living systems in vivo and in vitro, and have been widely applied in various fields of biology and medicine. Sorafenib is a multi-kinase inhibitor used as a standard therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the molecular basis for sorafenib resistance in HCC remains elusive. Recently, we developed new protocols for an electrochemical biosensor and applied these to monitor the levels of superoxide and nitric oxide produced in HCC cells, in the presence or absence of sorafenib. We also employed electrochemical biosensor to determine the release of profiles of superoxide and nitric oxide in sorafenib-treated HCC cells under the influence of fibroblast growth factor 19 expression levels. Here we present protocols to highlight the utility of electrochemical strategies in drug and gene studies.
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This research was supported by NIH grant R03DE028387 and R01DE028351 (to Y.T.).
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