Reverse Vaccinology and Its Applications
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The application of the fields of pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics to vaccine design, profoundly combined with bioinformatics, has been recently termed “vaccinomics.” The enormous amount of information generated by whole genome sequencing projects and the rise of bioinformatics has triggered the birth of a new era of vaccine research and development, leading to a “third generation” of vaccines, which are based on the application of vaccinomics science to vaccinology. The first example of such an approach is reverse vaccinology. Reverse vaccinology reduces the period of vaccine target detection and evaluation to 1–2 years. This approach targets the genomic sequence and predicts those antigens that are most likely to be vaccine candidates. This approach allows not only the identification of all the antigens obtained by the previous methods but also the discovery of new antigens that work on a totally different paradigm. Hence this method helps in the discovery of novel mechanisms of immune intervention. Epitope-based immune-derived vaccines (IDV) are generally considered to be safe when compared to other vectored or attenuated live vaccines. Epitope-based IDV may also provide essential T-cell help for antibody-directed vaccines. Such vaccines may have a significant advantage over earlier vaccine design approaches, as the cautious assortment of the components may diminish.
Key wordsVaccinomics Reverse vaccinology IDV Epitope
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