Mouse Models of Autoimmune Diabetes: The Nonobese Diabetic (NOD) Mouse

  • Dawei Chen
  • Terri C. Thayer
  • Li Wen
  • F. Susan WongEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 2128)


There are now a number of different mouse models for type 1 diabetes. The best known is the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse which has a genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diabetes with some features that are similar to human type 1 diabetes. The mice also have a propensity to other autoimmune diatheses, including autoimmune thyroid disease and sialadenitis. In addition, it is well known that environmental factors affect the incidence of disease in these mice. While there are other rodent models, including numerous transgenic and knockout models, as well as those that express human proteins, none of these develop spontaneous diabetes over a period of time, when the natural history can be studied. We focus here on the unmanipulated NOD mouse and discuss features of the husbandry and investigation of the mice that allow for use of these long-studied mice in the pathogenesis of an autoimmune type of diabetes.

Key words

NOD mice Type 1 diabetes Animal models Autoimmunity Genetic susceptibility Environment 


  1. 1.
    Kikutani H, Makino S (1992) The murine autoimmune diabetes model: NOD and related strains. Adv Immunol 51:285–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Makino S, Kunimoto K, Muraoka Y, Mizushima Y, Katagiri K, Tochino Y (1980) Breeding of a non-obese, diabetic strain of mice. Jikken Dobutsu 29(1):1–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anderson MS, Bluestone JA (2005) The NOD mouse: a model of immune dysregulation. Annu Rev Immunol 23:447–485. Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pearson JA, Wong FS, Wen L (2016) The importance of the non obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model in autoimmune diabetes. J Autoimmun 66:76–88. Scholar
  5. 5.
    Steward CA, Gonzalez JM, Trevanion S, Sheppard D, Kerry G, Gilbert JG, Wicker LS, Rogers J, Harrow JL (2013) The non-obese diabetic mouse sequence, annotation and variation resource: an aid for investigating type 1 diabetes. Database (Oxford) 2013:bat032. Scholar
  6. 6.
    Grattan M, Mi QS, Meagher C, Delovitch TL (2002) Congenic mapping of the diabetogenic locus Idd4 to a 5.2-cM region of chromosome 11 in NOD mice: identification of two potential candidate subloci. Diabetes 51(1):215–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pozzilli P, Signore A, Williams AJ, Beales PE (1993) NOD mouse colonies around the world – recent facts and figures. Immunol Today 14(5):193–196. Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schmid S, Koczwara K, Schwinghammer S, Lampasona V, Ziegler AG, Bonifacio E (2004) Delayed exposure to wheat and barley proteins reduces diabetes incidence in non-obese diabetic mice. Clin Immunol 111(1):108–118. Scholar
  9. 9.
    Maurano F, Mazzarella G, Luongo D, Stefanile R, D'Arienzo R, Rossi M, Auricchio S, Troncone R (2005) Small intestinal enteropathy in non-obese diabetic mice fed a diet containing wheat. Diabetologia 48(5):931–937. Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cooke A, Tonks P, Jones FM, O’Shea H, Hutchings P, Fulford AJ, Dunne DW (1999) Infection with Schistosoma mansoni prevents insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in non-obese diabetic mice. Parasite Immunol 21(4):169–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zaccone P, Raine T, Sidobre S, Kronenberg M, Mastroeni P, Cooke A (2004) Salmonella typhimurium infection halts development of type 1 diabetes in NOD mice. Eur J Immunol 34(11):3246–3256. Scholar
  12. 12.
    Drescher KM, Kono K, Bopegamage S, Carson SD, Tracy S (2004) Coxsackievirus B3 infection and type 1 diabetes development in NOD mice: insulitis determines susceptibility of pancreatic islets to virus infection. Virology 329(2):381–394. Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gale EA (2002) A missing link in the hygiene hypothesis? Diabetologia 45(4):588–594. Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wilberz S, Partke HJ, Dagnaes-Hansen F, Herberg L (1991) Persistent MHV (mouse hepatitis virus) infection reduces the incidence of diabetes mellitus in non-obese diabetic mice. Diabetologia 34(1):2–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    FELASA, Mahler Convenor M, Berard M, Feinstein R, Gallagher A, Illgen-Wilcke B, Pritchett-Corning K, Raspa M (2014) FELASA recommendations for the health monitoring of mouse, rat, hamster, guinea pig and rabbit colonies in breeding and experimental units. Lab Anim 48(3):178–192. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dawei Chen
    • 1
  • Terri C. Thayer
    • 1
  • Li Wen
    • 2
  • F. Susan Wong
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Infection and ImmunityCardiff University School of MedicineCardiffUK
  2. 2.Section of EndocrinologyYale School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations