Bioenergetic Analyses of In Vitro and In Vivo Samples to Guide Toxicological Endpoints

  • Jonathan W. BoydEmail author
  • Julia A. Penatzer
  • Nicole Prince
  • Julie V. Miller
  • Alice A. Han
  • Holly N. Currie
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 2102)


Toxicology is a broad field that requires the translation of biochemical responses to xenobiotic exposures into useable information to ensure the safety of the public. Modern techniques are improving rapidly, both quantitatively and qualitatively, to provide the tools necessary to expand available toxicological datasets and refine our ability to translate that data into relevant information via bioinformatics. These new techniques can, and do, impact many of the current critical roles in toxicology, including the environmental, forensic, preclinical/clinical, and regulatory realms. One area of rapid expansion is our understanding of bioenergetics, or the study of the transformation of energy in living organisms, and new mathematical approaches are needed to interpret these large datasets. As bioenergetics are intimately involved in the regulation of how and when a cell responds to xenobiotics, monitoring these changes (i.e., metabolic fluctuations) in cells/tissues post-exposure provides an approach to define the temporal scale of pharmacodynamic responses, which can be used to guide additional toxicological techniques (e.g., “omics”). This chapter will summarize important in vitro assays and in vivo imaging techniques to take real-time measurements. Using this information, our laboratory has utilized bioenergetics to identify significant time points of pharmacodynamic relevance as well as forecast the cell’s eventual fate.

Key words

Bioenergetics ATP MitoXpress Live/Dead NADH 2-NBDG ICG 18FDG Forecasting 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonathan W. Boyd
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Julia A. Penatzer
    • 1
  • Nicole Prince
    • 1
  • Julie V. Miller
    • 4
  • Alice A. Han
    • 5
  • Holly N. Currie
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of OrthopaedicsWest Virginia University School of MedicineMorgantownUSA
  2. 2.Department of Physiology and PharmacologyWest Virginia University School of MedicineMorgantownUSA
  3. 3.Department of Occupational and Environmental Health SciencesWest Virginia University School of Public HealthMorgantownUSA
  4. 4.Cardno ChemRiskPittsburghUSA
  5. 5.Department of Chemistry, West Virginia UniversityMorgantownUSA
  6. 6.Frostburg State UniversityFrostburgUSA

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