Advertisement

pp 1-10 | Cite as

Fabrication and Electrospinning of 3D Biodegradable Poly-l-Lactic Acid (PLLA) Nanofibers for Clinical Application

  • Balasundari Ramesh
  • Kotturathu Mammen Cherian
  • Adegbenro Omotuyi John Fakoya
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series

Abstract

Poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) is a biodegradable synthetic polyester synthesized by polymerization or polycondensation. PLLA hydrolytically degrades into lactic acid, a biocompatible metabolic by-product, making it suitable for clinical applications. PLLA scaffolds or nanofibers have been used in various regenerative medicine and drug delivery applications. These scaffolds impart biocompatible properties of high surface area, hydrophobicity, native extracellular properties, and mechanical strength for an organ system. Moreover, PLLA nanofibers hold great promise as drug delivery systems, where fabrication parameters and drug-PLA compatibility greatly affect the drug release kinetics. In this chapter, we present the protocols to fabricate, electrospinning, and validation of 3D PLLA nanofibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering application and offer perspectives on their future use.

Keywords

Poly-l-lactic acid Electrospinning Nanofibers Tissue engineering Drug delivery 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank our technicians from Frontier Mediville Mrs. Lavanya Rajasekaran and Mrs. Vimala Amulraj who helped us with the protocols and evaluation of electrospun nanofibers.

References

  1. 1.
    Lanza RP, Langer RS, Vacanti J (2007) Principles of tissue engineering, 3rd edn. Elsevier/Academic Press, Amsterdam/BostonGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lu L, Mikos AG (2009) Poly(lactic acid). In: Mark JE (ed) Polymer data handbook, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 794–800Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lasprilla AJ, Martinez GA, Lunelli BH, Jardini AL, Filho RM (2012) Poly-lactic acid synthesis for application in biomedical devices—a review. Biotechnol Adv 30:321–328Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bigg DM (2005) Polylactide copolymers: effect of copolymer ratio and end capping on their properties. Adv Polym Tech 24:69–82Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pham QP, Sharma U, Mikos AG (2006) Electrospinning of polymeric nanofibers for tissue engineering applications: a review. Tissue Eng 12:1197–1211Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhao JH, Han WQ, Tu M, Huan SW, Zeng R, Wu H, Cha ZG, Zhou CR (2012) Preparation and properties of biomimetic porous nanofibrous poly(l-lactide) scaffold with chitosan nanofiber network by a dual thermally induced phase separation technique. Mat Sci Eng C Mater 32:1496–1502Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shao JD, Chen C, Wang YJ, Chen XF, Du C (2012) Early stage evolution of structure and nanoscale property of nanofibers in thermally induced phase separation process. React Funct Polym 72:765–772Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lee S, Jin G, Jang JH (2014) Electrospun nanofibers as versatile interfaces for efficient gene delivery. J Biol Eng 8:30Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chou SF, Carson D, Woodrow KA (2015) Current strategies for sustaining drug release from electrospun nanofibers. J Control Release 220:584–591Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zamani M, Prabhakaran MP, Ramakrishna S (2013) Advances in drug delivery via electrospun and electrosprayed nanomaterials. Int J Nanomedicine 8:2997–3017Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Santoro M, Shah SR, Walker JL, Mikos AG (2016) Poly(lactic acid) nanofibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 107:206–212Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zeng J, Yang L, Liang Q, Zhang X, Guan H, Xu X, Chen X, Jing X (2005) Influence of the drug compatibility with polymer solution on the release kinetics of electrospun fiber formulation. J Control Release 105:43–51Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Saraf A, Lozier G, Haesslein A, Kasper FK, Raphael RM, Baggett LS, Mikos AG (2009) Fabrication of nonwoven coaxial fiber meshes by electrospinning. Tissue Eng Part C Methods 15:333–344Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Athanasiou KA, Niederauer GG, Agrawal CM (1996) Sterilization, toxicity, biocompatibility and clinical applications of polylactic acid polyglycolic acid copolymers. Biomaterials 17:93–102Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Habraken WJEM, Wolke JGC, Jansen JA (2007) Ceramic composites as matrices and scaffolds for drug delivery in tissue engineering. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 59:234–248Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    ISO 10993-5:2009 (E). Biological evaluation of medical devices. Tests for in vitro cytotoxicity.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    ISO 10993-12:2002 (E). Biological evaluation of medical devices. Sample preparation and reference materialGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Anuradha S, Uma Maheswari K, Swaminathan S (2013) In vivo biocompatibility of PLGA-polyhexylthiophene nanofiber scaffolds in a rat model. Biomed Res Int 2013:390518Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Radha C, Ramesh B, Veerappan S et al (2007) Cytotoxicity and sensitization studies of processed porcine xenografts. Ind J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 23:246–250Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Balasundari Ramesh
    • 1
  • Kotturathu Mammen Cherian
    • 1
  • Adegbenro Omotuyi John Fakoya
    • 2
  1. 1.Dr. K.M. Cherian Heart FoundationChennaiIndia
  2. 2.University of Medicine and Health SciencesBasseterre, St. Kitts and NevisTrinidad and Tobago

Personalised recommendations