Every city has a disaster at some time in its history. A few may have been mild, as in Perth, which has experienced only mild earthquakes and flooding, but urban history is dotted with disasters. The ancient city of Megiddo in the Middle East—after which the word “armageddon” was derived to mean “a dramatic and catastrophic conflict, especially one seen as likely to destroy the world or the human race”—is now just a large archaeological mound. Those working on the site have found twenty-two cities buried beneath the surface that were built and destroyed at some point in history. Megiddo’s problem was that it lay in the path of invading armies from the east and west.