The Loss of Natural Defenses

  • William R. Freudenburg
  • Robert Gramling
  • Shirley Laska
  • Kai T. Erikson


Even Before Katrina’s floodwaters had drained away, the investigations had begun. One of the patterns to emerge from those investigations is that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continues to disagree, strongly, with the critics of MRGO—meaning that the agency’s officials, at least, would almost certainly disagree with almost everything in this chapter. In the interest of fairness, accordingly, we will turn first to the official views of the Corps before summarizing the ways in which independent experts—and affected citizens—view the relevant evidence.


Storm Surge Coastal Wetland Saltwater Intrusion Brackish Marsh Cypress Tree 
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Copyright information

© William R. Freudenburg, Robert B. Gramling, Shirley B. Laska and Kai T. Erikson 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • William R. Freudenburg
    • 1
  • Robert Gramling
    • 2
  • Shirley Laska
    • 3
  • Kai T. Erikson
    • 4
  1. 1.University of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraUSA
  2. 2.University of Southwestern LouisianaLafayetteUSA
  3. 3.University of New OrleansNew OrleansUSA
  4. 4.Yale UniversityNew HavenUSA

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